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德语《萨满画家约斯卡·苏斯》及相关资料的翻译实践报告
添加时间: 2021/7/29 14:14:28 来源: 作者: 点击数:160

以实现想象对等为目标翻译萨满启蒙经历

《萨满画家约斯卡·苏斯》及相关资料的翻译实践报告


摘要

本文作者将两篇关于约斯卡•苏斯生平事迹的文章作为撰写翻译实践学位论文的蓝本。初次翻译之后,译者将翻译中所有遇到的问题和难点归纳、分类、总结。对于专业性的问题,译者通过咨询作品的原作者、萨满专家来解决。针对遇到的纷繁复杂的翻译问题,译者不断探求其根源,多次归纳分类,最终得出:所有问题都源自于译者力图实现想象对等。译者将想象对等归纳为“三个层次”:实体概念词的想象对等、情景的想象对等、逻辑推理的想象对等;将想象主体分“六个主体”:原作者、原作主人公、原作读者、译者、审校人员、译文读者。译者通过增译、加注、调整语序等翻译方法不断向想象对等靠拢,总结出“三个靠拢”:译者向原作者靠拢、译者向原文主人公靠拢、译者向历史靠拢。整篇论文是一个翻译实践——归纳问题——解决问题——总结经验的过程。

关键词:约斯卡·苏斯;萨满;启蒙经历;想象对等;翻译策略


ABSTRACT

An Analysis of the Translation of Shamanistic Initiations with the Intent to Realize Imagination EquivalenceA Report on the Translation of JÓSKA SOÓS. A SHAMAN AS ARTIST and Its Relative Materials

The author illustrates this translation practice thesis with two articles about Jóska Soós as chief sources. After finishing the preliminary translation, the author induced, classified and summarized all the problems and difficult points encountered in the translation process. To deal with professional problems, the author consulted the authors of source texts and specialists on Shaman. At last, the author found out the root of all kinds of problems which is the intent to realize the imagination equivalence. The author divided the imagination equivalence into “three levels”, including imagination equivalence of notional word, imagination equivalence of scene and imagination equivalence of logical reasoning and then divided imagination subjects into the original author, protagonist of original work, readers of original work, translator, proofreaders and translation readers named six imagination subjects. In the process of translation, the author tried to use some strategies, such as adding notes, adjusting word order, etc., to narrow the distance between the translator and the original authors, between the translator and protagonists of original work, between the translation readers and the history which the author named as three close relations. The whole thesis contains translation practice, problem summary, problem settlement and experience summary. 

Key Words: Jóska Soós, Shaman, initiation, imagination equivalence, translation strategies



1章 任务描述

1.1 委托方要求

     委托,由我本人来翻译JÓSKA SOÓS. A SHAMAN AS ARTIST (《萨满画家约斯卡·苏斯》)一文她要求译文准确,通顺,能够起到加深中匈萨满文化交流的目的,能够被译文读者所接受。在翻译期间,译者通过互联网www.soul-guidance.com网站上,找到另外一篇英文文章Biography of Joska Soos de Sovar, A Hungarian Shaman(匈牙利萨满——约斯卡·苏斯简介),作者是在比利时出生长大的Dirk Gillabel他研究方向是神学、塔罗牌等。我通过邮件的形式与作者取得了联系,Dirk Gillabel在电子邮件中向介绍了与约斯卡·苏斯之间的交往经历,通过约斯卡·苏斯,他学会了如何使用颂钵,在精神方面得到了很大的收获。邮件中我向他说明,我想把他的这篇文章翻译成中文,他同意的请求,原话为Feel free to translate it into your language. Please include reference to my website(你可以将此文翻译成你的语言。请把我的网址添加到参考文献内)。

1.2 作品简介

JÓSKA SOÓS. A SHAMAN AS ARTIST 一文一篇较为简短的人物传记。主人公是萨满兼画家约斯卡·苏斯  (Jóska Soós)原文作者塔玛拉· 英格尔斯教授 (Tamara Ingels)供职于布鲁塞尔自由大学艺术与考古学系Department of Arts and Archaeology of the Free University of Brussels (VUB),讲授艺术方法论熟悉约斯卡·苏斯本人及其作品,曾多次采访约斯卡·苏斯,写过关于约斯卡·苏斯的各类文章,筹备过展示约斯卡·苏斯作品的画展

    英文原文按照时间顺序介绍约斯卡·苏斯的生平经历。Tamara Ingels首先介绍了约斯卡的出生,他出生时被完整的羊膜囊包裹,这一点与众不同,这种方式出生的人被许多文化认为是上帝的选民。这件事引起了当地萨满托马斯·巴克斯的注意,为此,他还把约斯卡收做徒弟,向他传授萨满法术。后来,约斯卡去布达佩斯接受教育,但是没有中断萨满学习。这期间,他经历了一系列的萨满启蒙,渐渐领悟了萨满法术。后来,第二次世界大战爆发,前苏联占领了匈牙利,他被迫远赴异国他乡,来到比利时。为了取得比利时的居住权,他必须煤矿上班。期间,他再次经历了萨满启蒙。1965年,他离开沙勒罗瓦,来到了布鲁塞尔,开始绘画生活同年,约斯卡重返匈牙利,但他的萨满导师托马斯已经离开人世。2008年,约斯卡·苏斯辞世。 

从叙述人称看,原文属于他传,但文章中除了作者的叙述,还直接引用了大量Jóska Soós的原话,直接引语大约占文章的三分之一,基本都是主人公对往昔生活和萨满启蒙的回忆作者和约斯卡都对萨满启蒙经历做了诸多叙。这些启蒙多发生在约斯卡的头脑中,他讲述了多个关于他是如何通过自己的意识、符号、萨满鼓、绘画作品进入到另外一个萨满的精神世界的,具体现象包括梦境中公牛搏斗、穿行在白光之中、看见白色维度、站在漩涡之外、在湖水下面的泥沙里摸马的头骨、如何通过颂钵震动引起出神等等。这些都是萨满约斯卡一个人能感知的,对于原文读者、译者以及译文读者都只能凭借想象去构建这些画面全文共7231词。

Biography of Joska Soos de Sovar, A Hungarian Shaman(匈牙利萨满——约斯卡苏斯简介)一文同样介绍了约斯卡·苏斯的生平,作者Dirk GillabelDirk研究神学,译者在与他互通邮件时,他讲到他自己也曾经历过约斯卡见过的类似的白光,所以在选材上,DirkTamara有不同之处例如Tamara对约斯卡绘画作品的描述比Dirk介绍的要多,Dirk曾从约斯卡那里买过颂钵,所以Dirk在介绍约斯卡与僧侣交流颂钵体验的部分就比Tamara所介绍的要更加具体。全文共3161词。两篇文章在内容上起到了一定的互补作用。


2章 过程描述

2.1  译员的确定

2.2  译前准备

由于本文将正式出版,必须具有准确性和专业性,所以译者在翻译之前将全文通读两遍,了解全部文本内容。译者在翻译前准备了各类英汉、汉英词典,注册知网账号,通过linkin等网站查阅了作者以及主人公约斯卡的相关资料,对他们有了一个更加全面的认识。因为原文字数不到10000词,所以作者通过网络找到另一篇与本文内容十分相近的英文文章Biography of Joska Soos de Sovar, A Hungarian Shaman(匈牙利萨满——约斯卡·苏斯简介),作者为Dirk Gillabel他的文章尚没有中文译本,所以译者通过邮件的方式征求了Dirk的同意,将他的文章翻译成汉语在翻译之前,译者还阅读了一些文献资料与网页,通过知网下载了部分文献。

翻译计划制定:译者的翻译计划包括初译、自我校对、专业校对。201312月:着手翻译《萨满画家约斯卡·苏斯》及相关资料;3月至4月,总结归纳翻译的问题;5月至6月,提出问题的解决办法;7月至10月,与两位原作作者、郭淑云教授、赵芙蓉博士取得联系,向他们请教专业问题;10月末交由译者的研究生导师指导修改;12月末交郭淑云教授校对审查

2.3  术语表制定

为了保证译文名词的统一性,译者制定了术语表,参考附件3

2.4  对照文本的选择

    本文选择的对照文本是译者的初稿。

2.5  翻译过程中遇到的问题以及策略的制定

在翻译的过程中,译者遇到了一系列的问题,经过总结,主要包括以下几点:第一,如何翻超出译者认知范围的内容;第二,对于含义众多的英文单词,无法准确选词;第三,如何翻译主人公约斯卡所看到的,但是译者无法看到场景;第四,作者未剖析,但影响译文准确度的内容,如何适度发挥主观能动性。诚然,问题不仅这些,在翻译的过程中不时遇到各种阻碍。

经过对这些问题的反思和总结,译者概括了在翻译过程中始终在头脑中控制翻译过程的标准,如何达到想象的对等。也就是说译者的出发点是想实现译文读者头脑中的想象与原文读者的想象达到一致,而要达到想象对等就要求我的想象与约斯卡个人描述、或借Tamara之笔描述的情节是一致的,或者是大体一致的。译者需要明确约斯卡所看到的景象,想象当时的场景,然后在付诸笔墨,将画面描述出来。最后我总结归纳出想象对等的“三个层次”以及“六个主体”:“三个层次”包括实体概念的想象对等、场景的想象对等、逻辑推理的想象对等;“六个主体”包括原作者、原作主人公、原作读者、译者、审校人员、译文读者。

在翻译相关文本后,我也着重比较了两者的相同和不同。两篇文章都参考了荷兰阿姆斯特丹凯尔奈克(Karnak1985年编辑出版的《约斯卡·苏斯,我不会治愈,只是恢复和谐》(Joska Soos, Ik genees niet, ik herstel de harmonie一书,但是语言风格和侧重点有所不同,在实现想象对等内容完整上,可以互为补充。

为了突出选题的独创性和新颖性,本文着重分析Tamara IngelsDirk Gillabel在文中讲述的Jóska的萨满启蒙经历,达到想象对等目标通过增译、加注、调整语序等方法,达到“六个主体”之间的想象对等,以及译者向原作者靠拢、译者向原文主人公靠拢、译者向历史靠拢。

对于无法理顺和解决的问题,译者主动采取各种方法联系原文作者,与Tamara IngelsDirk Gllabel通过电子邮件就两篇英文原文的内容及含义进行沟通。与此同时,译者也向就读于京都大学研究生院人类环境学研究科文化人专业赵芙蓉博士请教了许多关于萨满方面的问题,她都给予了耐心的解答。郭淑云教授也对一些专业词汇解读提供了许多帮助

2.6  翻译的执行情况及质量控制

翻译过程中总会碰到各种问题,为了解决这些问题,译者本着对委托方负责、对职业操守负责、对学校负责的态度,及时与委托方、原文作者、萨满教专家沟通,及时处理。并通过网络、图书馆等渠道和方法,得以将全部文章翻译完全。总体来说,翻译的过程是一个曲折前进的过程,是一个实践,认识,再实践,再认识的过程。

翻译质量控制主要是由论文作者的导师以及大连民族学院郭淑云、旅美香港艺术家陈泽民来检查校对出版社在出版前也将进一步对翻译质量进行控制

2.7  客户评价

    由于文章正在由检查,所以还未做进一步修改,委托方暂时未作出评价。


第3章 案例分析

3.1  想象对等的理念分析

想象对等还没有一个固定的概念Nida20世纪6070年代的一系列著作中构筑了一个宏大的结构主义归化式翻译理论体系……他的归化翻译理想是‘最切近的自然对等’(closest natural equivalence)” (王东风,2002:25)。本文作者借鉴了 “equivalence,构建了 “imagination equivalence 想象对等一词。“相对而言,对等是静态概念。它描述两个文本之间交际价值的对等;或在较低层面,如词、短语、句子、意义、文体或其它层面上的对等。目的论把对等归为充分的一种表现形式。当译文的交际目的要求译文具有与原文同样的交际功能时,对等就成为翻译过程的标准,以保证两个文本功能相同”(仲伟合 钟 钰1999:49)。本文有许多场景画面需要译者想象,因为难以想象,所以难以描述,更难以翻译,致使译者遇到一系列的问题,为了寻求一个有效的方法,译者通过总结归纳遇到的难点象对等归纳为“三个层次”:实体概念的想象对等;场景的想象对等;逻辑推理的想象对等;把想象主体分“六个主体”:原作者、原作主人公、原作读者、译者、审校人员、译文读者;译者“三个靠拢”:译者向原作者靠拢;译者向原文主人公靠拢;译者向历史靠拢。

对于译者来说,翻译过程时刻受知识面、汉语和英语掌握程度的局限,“翻译本身就是一件令人左右为难的事”(叶子南,2008:13),这一过程译者需要“正确解码原作品,然后用另外一种语言把原文创作出来”(杨俊峰,2008:57),并且 “需要调动译文读者语言和文化中能够转达原文表层和深层意义的那一部分,但同时又必须受制于原文的限制,不能脱离原文的深层意义。也就是说,译者必须在主动性和受动性之间时刻寻求平衡”(杨俊峰,2008:57)。译者要不断调整翻译方法,无论是采取直译或是异议,增译或是删译,都是为了完成一篇令人满意的文章,达到翻译的目的。为了实现想象对等的“三个层次”,译者会经常通过文内夹注或者文外用注的形式显身。本文作者在翻译过程中,深刻感受到翻译的整个过程就是想实现“六个主体”交互式的三个层次的想象对等以及“三个靠拢”。

对于读者来说,“读者想象的自由活跃的程度,受着理解的规范和限定,而读者对作品的理解,又受着想象的牵动和联接,趋向于感知。由于想象的活跃,使理解带有非确定性;由于理解的规范,使非确定性又趋向概念的确定性”(刘东霞,2006:245)。要想实现译文读者和原文作者、主人公、校对人员、原文读者、译者之间的想象对等,首先要保证译者与原文作者的想象趋于一致,并尽量向译文读者靠拢。如果译者都不能深刻领会作者的想法和表达,那么也很难让译文读者与原作者产生共鸣。诚然,由于译者的才能是有限的,而读者的知识面是广阔的,所以即使译者不能与原作者保持想象的一致,那么译文读者也有可能与原文读者达到想象的一致。但是译者有义务拓展自己的知识面,加强翻译的准确性,只有这样才不至于误导译文读者、歪曲原文内容。

从历史层面和逻辑推理的角度来讲,原文可能受到作者或主人公知识面、语言表达能力、记忆模糊、有意规避、时代局限等问题的干扰和局限,导致不准确或不完整,经不起逻辑推理,与历史情况不符。当原文与译者的历史知识发生冲突时,译者有必要向历史靠拢,即使不改变原文,也应该以其他方式说明,从而实现译文的逻辑性,使文章经得起历史的检验,经得起专业人士的质疑。本文作者在处理如何实现逻辑推理的想象对等时,从历史层面加深分析,不希望把译者本人在读原文时所犯的逻辑推断错误再进一步传播给译文读者,尽量减少不必要的疑惑和历史错误,采用了一些翻译策略,例如删减法和改译法,“以原文分析为基础的删减法和改译法在不少情况下,是实现译文预期功能的必要手段。只要运用得当,它能起到一般翻译技巧难以达到的积极效果”(陈小慰, 2000:12)。

3.2  以想象对等为目的翻译约斯卡苏斯的萨满启蒙经历

本文作为传记文本,“虽主要介绍人物,属于传达信息类的文本,但同时也有文学的一些特点,有文笔、有色彩,有时甚至也能文如其人,因此对译者能构成挑战,是经济、法律、科技类的文本所不能比的”(叶子南,2007:82)。本文以主人公约斯卡·苏斯为中心展开。他是萨满,所以他讲述的萨满启蒙经历以及他所看到的奇特场景,是译者没有经历的,所以在翻译中存在一定的困难,但是译者可以通过翻译约斯卡的叙述内容描绘的经历咨询萨满教专家,询问原作者尽量达到想象对等的下文通过举例论述的形式,就译者如何实现“六个主体”之间交互式想象对等以及“三个靠拢”展开分析: 

3.2.1 实体概念词的想象对等

1 “When people come to me with their problems, then I start singing about their problems and through the sounds I reach a special state of mind that can be situated between being awake and falling asleep. It is a kind of hypnotic condition, a controlled trance, which the old shaman taught us. (...) Then sounds rise within my being and I come in contact with the person and get a psychological image of him.  (Hartzema 1985)Tamara150 

本文中出现了一个名词 “trance” ,它的英文含义包括:恍惚出神着迷入迷。由于萨满的 “trance” 只有他自己体验过,而译者无从体验,所以译者在翻译时无法从根本上实现译者与主人公的想象对等。但只要翻译内容足够向原文作者和主人公靠拢,就不阻碍一些读者能够和主人公实现想象对等。译者向赵芙蓉、Dirk GillabelTamara Ingels询问萨满启蒙的问题时,他们都能对这一过程进行解释和描述,这一点就说明,即使译者与主人公和原作者无法实现想象对等,译文读者也可以向主人公的想象靠拢

根据上下文,我们可以得知,进入 “trance” 的萨满,处在一种催眠的状态,即 “a kind of hypnotic condition” 在进入 “trance” 之后, “Then sounds rise within my being and I come in contact with the person and get a psychological image of him”Tamara150),即约斯卡说有一种声音在他的身体里被唤起,然后他就和求助的人建立某种联系,看到这个人的精神形象

为了给 “trance 找一个准确的汉语翻译,译者查找了一些文献资料。日本宗教史学家樱井德太郎结合东北亚萨满教现行形态对萨满予以分类指出萨满的职能所不可缺少的神灵附体的契机称作trance(出神)而这种契机通常根据神灵附体的形式分为两类:游离型和附着型。他认为游离型主要见于西伯利亚东北部和中亚细亚的通古斯系萨满他们认为萨满一旦进入出神状态其灵魂就会脱离肉体或者上天遨游或者入地巡行与那里的神灵交往并将神灵的意旨传达于人间”(郭淑云,2007:97),此时,“萨满的生命机能减少到一个反常的最低限度陷入一种似昏睡状态恍惚若梦(郭淑云2009:97)。所以译者选择出神”来翻译 “trance” 

为了尽量实现译文读者与主人公之间的想象对等,译者在修改译文时,引用了郭淑云教授的文章,以加注的形式对 trance 一词进行了解释。

初译:当有人向我求助的时候,我会先把他们的困扰唱出来,这些音调把我的神智带入一种特殊的状态,介于沉睡和清醒之间,就像是被催眠了,属于一种可控的出神,这是老萨满教给我们的。(……)有一种声音在我身体里被唤起,接着我就和这个人建立了某种联系,我能看到他的精神形象。

改译:如果有人来向我求助,我就先把他们的问题唱出来,唱出来的音调把我引入一种特殊的精神状态,介于沉睡和清醒之间,有如被催眠一般,属于一种可控的出神状态,这是老萨满教给我们的。(……)有一种声音在我身体里被唤起,然后我就和这些人建立起某种联系,并能看到他们的精神形象。

② 出神:“萨满的职能所不可缺少的神灵附体的契机称作trance(出神)而这种契机通常根据神灵附体的形式分为两类游离型和附着型。游离型主要见于西伯利亚东北部和中亚细亚的通古斯系萨满他们认为萨满一旦进入出神状态其灵魂就会脱离肉体或者上天遨游或者入地巡行与那里的神灵交往并将神灵的意旨传达于人间。(引自[]樱井德太郎著、李东源译:《日本的萨满教》,吉林省民族研究所编:《萨满教文化研究》(2),天津古籍出版社1990年版,第137页。)

2He describes this condition as a kind of “travelling in white light“I travelled in white light. These were the same elements which I experienced in my initiations, but this time I really went through it (I really experienced it). In the initiation I only watched it from a distance, I did nothing more but looking at it. But when I was unconscious I went through it, as if it were some kind of smoke.” (Hartzema 1985). (Tamara151)

本段第一句中有 “white light” 一词,引发了译者的想象。 由于约斯卡看到的 “white light” 只有他本人看到译者无从知晓。基于这种光是白色的,译者只能将这种光想象成类似于白炽灯发出的白光,但是具体想象如何穿越这样的白光还是较为困难的。为了进一步了解white light”,译者从Dirk的文章中找到了相关资料: “The white light in the dream refers to crystal consciousness”Dirk2001),即梦中的白光就是透明的意识。这一解释增添了白光的深层含义,说明它不仅仅是光,还是一种意识。所以为了使译文读者能够充分了解白光,发挥译文读者的想象,向主人公的意识层次靠拢,译者在文后加注,将Dirk的解释加入其中,从而使译文读者意识到这个白光不只是指普通的光,还指一种意识。

译文:这次经历被约斯卡描述为“穿行在白光之中”:我穿行在白光之中。在我初学萨满时,见过那种自然力,只是这次我真实地穿过了它,是亲身经历。在萨满启蒙时,我曾在远处观察过这种白光,但仅仅是观察而已。但是在我精神恍惚的时候,我却能在白光中穿行。这种白光好像是一种烟雾,我觉得自己也如同烟雾一般,我感觉周围有力的存在,那种力就像穿行在磁场中所能感受到的磁场力。(……)我感觉非常好,觉得自己周围没有了时间,也没有了空间,我好像同宇宙中的一切都联系起来了,我就是这样经历的。

②白光:根据Dirk Gillabel的文章,这里的“白光”还指透明意识。The white light in the dream refers to crystal consciousness. (Dirk,2001)

3I really enjoyed myself. I experienced myself as timeless, spaceless, a kind of all-encompassing consciousness. That is how I experienced it. (Hartzema 1985)(Tamara 151)

本句出现了 “all-encompassing consciousness” 这一名词短语,译者在翻译的过程中始终认为这一词难以理解,难翻译,难以捉摸这种意识完全超出译者的想象能力,作为译者,只能尽量向主人公的靠拢。但是原文读者可能有过类似经历,他们能理解 “all-encompassing consciousness”,如果译者翻译得当,那么不排除中文读者也能理解这一状态。

初次翻译时,译者直译将其译我好像处于囊括了一切的有意识状态中”。在重新修改译文时,译者本着实现“六个主体”之间的三个层次的想象对等以及“三个靠拢”的目的,咨询了原文作者Tamara InglesDirk Gillabel对于 “all-encompassing consciousness” 理解。Tamara Ingles回复: the all-encompassing consciousness means he felt as if he was part of something so large, it seemed to include everything and everyone (all-encompassing)  “all-encompassing consciousness” ,就是说他感觉自己好像是某种非常宏大的事物中的一部分,这种宏大的物质看起来涵盖了一切事物和每一个人 Dirk Gillabel回复说: “It would be what most people call cosmic consciousness, the state of mind in which you feel one with all of the universe and everything that exists.”(这可能就是大多人所说的宇宙意识,思维处于这种状态时,你会感觉处于一种与宇宙的一切以及存在的一切达到合一的境界),译者又追问one with all of the universe and everything that exists是什么意思,他回复: “It is a feeling that one is connected with everything that exists”(就是一种你和存在的一切都联系起来了的感觉)。基于他的答复,我对 all-encompassing consciousness” 的翻译进行了修改:

译文:我感觉非常好,觉得自己周围没有时间,也没有空间,我好像处于宏大的宇宙意识,这里囊括了的一切,我也与这一切合而为一,这就是我的经历。

4On the way to the fair, I made a real cosmic journey, into the micro- and macrocosmos at the same time; I travelled to the starry sky and experienced what matter is. I didn't meet any human being or an extraterrestrial there, but I experienced the structure of the material universe .(Hartzema 1985) Tamara152

这段话中出现一个名词 “micro-and macrocosmos” ,即微观宇宙和宏观宇宙。约斯卡说他同时经历微观宇宙和宏观宇宙,相信很多人和译者一样,难以想象这是一种什么感觉的旅程,所以译者就需要尽量向主人公靠拢。为此译者向萨满专业方向的赵芙蓉博士请教,她认为约斯卡本人的灵魂已经脱离他的身体,处于在另一种宇宙当中游行的状态,能看到东西也能听见声音,只是这些接触的东西不是他本人在日常生活当中所接触到的东西,所以他把这些表达为另一种宇宙,那个宇宙里没有人也没有地球外生物,那是萨满的宇宙,小宇宙表达的应该是萨满本身的精神状态。大宇宙是那个没有人也没有地球外生物的独特的萨满宇宙,通过进入恍惚状态满的体内的小宇宙和萨满能感觉到的大宇宙能连贯起来,他这里想表达的意思应该是恍惚状态的重要性。其中extraterrestrial’ 并不只是指外星人,应该翻译为地球外生物地球外物质

关于微观宇宙和宏观宇宙的问题译者也请教了原文作者Tamara,她解释称:macro and micro mean the different worlds the shaman can travel in (by trance), you can compare it with the world of bacteria (micro) and the universe, stars and planets (macro),即宏观和微观的意思出神的萨满可以穿行其中的不同世界,你可以把这与微小的细菌世界和宇宙、恒星和行星对比来理解。

为了更加透彻的了解这一概念,译者从Dick Gillabel的文章中,找出同样是描写约斯卡这次经历的一段话:

 In this state of consciousness he discovered the structure of the micro- and macro-cosmos, which is a mathematical structure and a weaving of energy lines. It is all alive, and one goes over into the other. He experienced that mathematical structures are being of both space and time; the structures always move and are like transparent crystals, as if made out of light. He saw a number of dimensions which were interconnected. He also experienced the white light. (Dick, 2001)

Dick解释微观和宏观宇宙的结构是一种数学结构,也是能量线交织的构造。每个结构都是动态的,不断互相交织着。约斯卡感受到这些数学结构既是空间的也是时间的,它们不断移动,像是由光制成的透明晶体一样。最后,译者在初译文本的基础上,对译文加以改进。

初译在去集市的路上,我经历了一次宇宙之旅,在同一时间来到了微观宇宙和宏观宇宙;我穿行在闪耀的星空里,经历了物质,我没有见到人类或外星人,但是我见到并感受到了物质宇宙结构。

改译:在去集市的路上,我经历了一次宇宙之旅,在同一时间来到了微观宇宙和宏观宇宙;我穿行在闪耀的星空里,经历了物质,我没有见到人类或地球外物质,但是我见到并感受到了物质宇宙结构。

⑤“微观和宏观宇宙的结构是一种数学结构,也是能量线交织的构造。每个结构都是动态的,不断互相交织着。他感受到这些数学结构既是空间的也是时间的,它们不断移动,像是由光制成的透明晶体一样 (Dirk, 2001)” “小宇宙表达的应该是萨满本身的精神状态。大宇宙是那个没有人也没有地球外生物的独特的萨满宇宙,通过进入恍惚状态萨满的体内的小宇宙和萨满能感觉到的大宇宙能连贯起来,宏观和微观的意思出神的萨满可以穿行其中的不同世界,你可以把这与微小的细菌世界和宇宙、恒星和行星对比来理解(赵芙蓉)。”(译者注:这里的‘小宇宙’就是指‘微观宇宙’,‘大宇宙’指‘宏观宇宙’)。

5()Aside from a few spiritually interested non-Tibetans, they all belonged to the red cap monks of the Karmapa Order. So, Joska attended their meetings on a regular basis and talked about many aspects of lamaism, and about his own experiences. They made a Tibetan horoscope for him, from which they concluded that he had been a Tibetan lama in a past incarnation, and before that a Chinese mandarin and Taoist. They organized a special ritual to bring him, and a couple of others, in contact with their genetic past. (Dirk)

上面这一段出现Dirk Gillabel的文章中,他详述了约斯卡是如何与西藏喇嘛相遇并且使用西藏颂钵的经历这些僧侣自称 the red cap monks of the Karmapa Order”。他们专门为约斯卡做了一个西藏占星图,推算约斯卡的前世是一个西藏喇嘛,而在这之前是一个满清官员与道教徒。

作为具有中国文化背景的中国译者,我能想象出西藏喇嘛、满清官员和道教徒的形象,并且与之产生很多相关联想。基本能够实现译者与原文的想象对等。

在本段中出现的 “the red cap monks of the Karmapa Order” 翻译成“噶玛巴红帽系”成为译者考量的问题。

 red cap 是红色的帽子, “red cap monks 特指噶玛噶举派的红帽系僧侣。噶举派是公元十一二世纪佛教后弘时期发展起来的,达波拉杰创立了达布噶举,培养了四位著名的弟子,形成了达波四支,其中势力最强的一派为噶玛噶举噶玛噶举先后建立了几大转世系统,其中黑帽系和红帽系最为著名”(百度百科,词条“噶举派”)第一世大宝法王杜松浅巴圆寂时曾预言他将转世两个化身在此世界,即噶玛巴和夏玛巴” (百度百科,词条“红帽系”)。“夏玛巴藏语意为红帽系的上师,主要特征是其帽子为红色。夏玛巴也称红帽喇嘛,后来又称红帽噶玛巴,清乾隆四十九年(公元1785年),噶玛噶举红帽系第十世活佛曲朱嘉措外逃到廓尔喀国(今尼泊尔),并挑唆廓尔喀国王发兵西藏,以失败告终,乾隆下令禁止转世,并强令其所属百余名红帽喇嘛改宗格鲁派(黄教),因此第十一世、十二世和十三世的夏玛巴都是秘密转世的,鲜为人知,第十六世噶玛巴(大宝法王)请第十四世达赖喇嘛在锡金认证十四世夏玛巴赤列贡巧(米庞却吉罗佐)”(维基百科,词条“夏玛巴”)

黑帽系活佛是噶玛巴·都松钦巴大师创立的噶玛噶举活佛系统中的直系传承(百度百科,词条“黑帽系”)上师是十七世噶玛巴活佛——伍金赤列多吉

夏玛巴自被乾隆禁止转世以后,一直没有得到中国政府的解禁。据此推断,约斯卡见到的僧侣自称是红帽那么他们的领袖就是夏玛巴,或者叫做红帽噶玛巴,所以不应混淆夏玛巴与噶玛巴,译者做了一个更直观的图来表示这一关系:

上图已经表明,如果是红帽系上师,可以称自己为红帽噶玛巴,如果是红帽系僧侣,可以直接称自己为红帽系僧侣,或者称其属于噶玛噶举派红帽系。如果称自己是红帽系,那么上师自然是夏玛巴,如果按照原文的顺序翻译成“噶玛巴红帽系僧侣”显然不符合历史惯用的表达法。

关于 “Karmapa Order” 这个词的翻译,译者也查阅了维基百科谷歌搜索,但是没有找到这一词条经过推断,译者认为这些僧侣要表达的应该是 “sect ,宗教派别的意思,或者system”,表达转世系统。

根据上下文以及历史推断,译者选择噶玛噶举红帽系僧侣”来翻译 “the red cap monks of Karmapa Order” 

3.2.2 场景的想象对等

1 Every now and then I woke up and I had remarkable dream visions of a heavy thunderstorm. The clouds in my dream were like two fighting bulls that produced thunder and lightning, like it is being told in the old Hungarian folk tales. Tamara155

本段话描述了一个约斯卡整个梦境的场景。梦中有非常大的雷雨,乌云就像两只战斗的公牛,相互撞击,产生了雷和闪电。画面类似于匈牙利的古老传说。

这一段话里面提到了old Hungarian folk,即匈牙利的古老传说译文读者的脑海里是不大可能想象出这个匈牙利的古老传说指的是什么,但是匈牙利读者中就可能知道这个传说,从而能够想象出约斯卡所提到的“古老传说”,引起共鸣。译者头脑中也没有这个传说,不能实现想象对等,只能向这一目标靠拢,所以这里有必要对这一古老传说进行解读。如果对古老传说的画面有了清晰的了解,那么就有利于译者、译文读者与主人公的想象对等,或者与约斯卡的梦境更加靠拢。

Dirk的文章中有这样一段话 Apparently, the bull was the totem animal of the shamans, and when two shamans dispute their privileges, they would dress up as wild horses or as bulls, and then fight each other” ,翻译为:很显然,因为牛是萨满的图腾,当两位萨满争取他们的特权时,他们会穿得像野马或是牛一样,展开争斗。译者向赵芙蓉博士咨询,她对这一故事也不清楚,她通过网络查找岩崎パプリカ通信的杂志,在 2004年版第三期上刊登了一篇文章《活在匈牙利的民话,民间宗教里的タールトシュタールトシュ的意思是萨满”)这篇文章中提到在萨满教中,公牛象征满本身。萨满梦里出现公牛争斗说明他已经是真正的萨满。也就是一种入巫的征兆。匈牙利的满的主要特征是能变身为公牛。乌云压压暴风雨来临之际必须和别的公牛争斗来确立自己的地位”(原文为日文,本段由赵芙蓉翻译)。通过这样的解释,我们就可以构造一个战斗的画面,并且把约斯卡的梦境和萨满教联系起来,也把这个匈牙利传说与萨满联系起来。

所以在译文中,译者以加注的形式补充内容,从而尽量让译文读者的想象向译者和主人公靠拢,尽量可以使想象的画面变得清晰完整。

译文:我经常半夜醒来,清楚的记得梦境中的场面。那一场大雷阵雨中的乌云像两头战斗的公牛,他们相撞产生雷和闪电。就像老匈牙利民间传说中讲述的那样。(……)然后我就又睡着了,梦一连串儿的白色的梦,类似我多年前和托马斯·巴克斯赶着大篷车在马背上做的梦。

在萨满教中,公牛象征满本身。萨满梦里出现公牛争斗说明他已经是真正的萨满。也就是一种入巫的征兆。匈牙利的满的主要的特征是能变身为公牛。乌云压压暴风雨来临之际必须和别的公牛争斗来确立自己的地位”(赵芙蓉译自岩崎子《活在匈牙利的民话,民间宗教里的タールトシュ. 2004) 牛是萨满的图腾,当两位萨满争取他们的特权时,他们会穿得像野马或是牛一样,展开争斗Dirk2001)”

    2 “Now I dreamt that I was completely enclosed by glass, crystal or ice, and I became more and more silent inside myself. (...) The ice broke into pieces and I saw the white dimensions that attracted me very much. I was loosing myself in the whirlpool of infinite white dimensions that faded into different patterns and came towards me from all sides. They moved towards a light that was even brighter and more white, as a pit in which all dimensions disappeared, and it was my inner voice that told me not to go any further. So, I remained at the side of the whirlpool of light and I did not proceed ” (Hartzema 1985). Tamara156

这一段整体描写约斯卡的一启蒙情景,整个情景构成一系列画面为了实现译文读者与主人公之间情景的想象对等,译者也尽量按照主人公看见的画面的先后顺序展开翻译其中也涉及到句子的结构调整。

约斯卡提及他梦见自己完全被包围,周围是玻璃,水晶,或者是冰,这构成了一个立体画面。之后,叙述了他的感受,包括内心越来越。后来冰裂成碎片,他看到了白色的维度,这些维度非常吸引了。接下来他在无穷尽的白色维度中的漩涡里一点一点迷失,同时,这些维度逐渐消散成各种形状,并从四面八方他移动。白色维度在一个涡流似的光点中消失,约斯卡内心的声音告诉他,不要继续走,以免陷入这个涡流。

整个画面围绕“白色维度”来讲。在包围了约斯卡的冰裂成碎片之后,他被白色维度所吸引,维度无穷无尽,不但有漩涡,还会消散,并能从四面八方向他移动。整个场景较为复杂,难以构造。为了理解这一场面,译者请教了Dirk Gillabel,他回复译者说: “Dimensions are like different world, spiritual worlds, or worlds made from different densities. There are several of them. It is where you go when your physical body dies. These dimensions are also populated by different beings.” 大意就是:维度就像不同的世界,精神世界,或者不同密度构成的各种世界。有几种这样的维度存在。维度是肉体死亡时,你所去的地方。这些维度内,各种存在。” 他的这一段话,提供给我们一些用来理解“维度”的素材。但是译者的知识也是有限的,并不能完全构造出一个与约斯卡看见的等同的画面。我通过加注的方式,将Dirk的解释加进来,采取顺译的方式,尽量让每一个出现的事物都按照主人公所见画面的顺序出现在译文读者面前。

在往来邮件中,译者向Tamara询问了 dimensions 的意思,她解释称:  Dimensions can be the size of something (length, width, etc), or the dimensions of the mind, a term often used when describing trances and altered states of consciousness,即维度可以是某些东西的大小,比如长度、宽度等等,或者思想的维度,是在描写出神和意识状态转变时常用的术语。

:现在梦见自己完全被玻璃,水晶,或者是冰包围,我感觉自己内心越来越寂静,后来冰裂成碎片,白色的维度就出现在了我的眼前,这些维度非常非常吸引。在这无穷尽的白色维度中有一个漩涡,我在涡流里一点一点迷失,同时,这些维度也逐渐消散成各种形状,并从四面八方向我的方向移动。这些维度向一个漩涡移动,那个光点比白色维度要更明亮,更白,就像一个陷阱,所有维度都在里面消失了,我身体内的一种声音告诉我,不要再往前走。所以,我在光的漩涡的外侧停下来,没有继续往前走。

⑦“维度就像不同的世界,精神世界,或者不同密度构成的各种世界。有几种这样的维度存在。维度是当肉体死亡时,你所去的地方。在这些维度内,有着各种存在。(本文作者译自Dirk Gillabel与译者的回信,回信原文:“Dimensions are like different world, spiritual worlds, or worlds made from different densities. There are several of them. It is where you go when your physical body dies. These dimensions are also populated by different beings.”

   3:  At a certain moment, I entered the control-room and suddenly I saw all kinds of little dots appear, microscopically small, but I saw them so clearly as if something had fallen from my eyes and I could suddenly SEE. The dots had all kinds of colours, blue, green, yellow and red, similar to the colours of the rainbow (...) It had to come from somewhere, I thought, and I was looking around searching for a coloured window. I could not find one. I opened the door, went outside and came back inside, but I was still seeing it. I went outside again, walked around the blast-furnace and I saw it there too, in the sky. (Hartzema 1985). (Tamara, 159)

这段话是约斯卡·苏斯在煤矿上干活的时候经历的另外一次启蒙经历,看到控制室里各种颜色的微小的点。

在理解了整段话的含义之后,我构造了一个画面,首先出场的是主人公约斯卡·苏斯,从控制室的门外推开控制室的门,走进去,室内都是机器设备,就在某一个时间点,他的眼前突然看到很多非常小,并且呈现出各种颜色的点,小到要用显微镜才能看到,这时约斯卡认为小点是从某个地方来的,可能是因为某个窗户是色彩斑斓的,所以小点会是彩色的,他四处看,可是没找到这样的窗户,那是不是眼花了呢,或者是这些点是虚幻的(译者的想象),他考虑,是否出去一趟,再进来,就看不到了,所以他开门出去,又推门进来,这些小点依然还在,之后,他又推门出去,来到鼓风炉放置的地方,可是那里依然有彩色的小点飘在空中。所以这些小点一定是特别的,作为萨满的他才看得到。

作为译者,我根据原文的顺序构建想象画面,预设白色的点,但随着文章往后开展我才明白不是白色的点,而是五颜六色的点。如果翻译为“约斯卡看到了很多点,是五颜六色的”,这时译者的想象和原文的顺序是对等的,实现译者与原文读者、原文作者的想象对等,但是没有实现译文读者与主人公的想象对等;如果直接翻译为“约斯卡看到了五颜六色的点,那么就忠于约斯卡·苏斯在控制室内看到的景象,而原文的顺序不同

通过对比,译者认为,在不篡改、扭曲整体文章意义的前提下,在一个适度的范围之内发挥译者的主观能动性,通过调整句子顺序,让译者读者与原文的主人公所看到的景象一致更重要,所以对初译文稿进行了修改,对比如下:

初译就在某一个时间点,我走进控制室,突然看见各种小点儿,小到要用显微镜才看得到,但是我却可以清晰的看见它们,就像什么东西从我的眼球上脱落,让我突然就能看见这些小点儿。这些小点儿呈现出各种颜色,有蓝色、绿色、黄色、红色、和彩虹的颜色类似,(……),我当时想这些小点儿一定是从什么地方来的,我四处看,想找到那个色彩斑斓的窗户,但是我没有找到,我开门出去,再进去,但是我还是能看见,我又出去一趟,到鼓风炉那个地方,也看见了,在天上 

改译:就在一个时间点,我推开控制室的门,走进去我的眼前突然出现很多非常非常小的,五颜六色<, SPAN style="LINE-HEIGHT: 150%; FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman'; FONT-SIZE: 12pt; mso-spacerun: 'yes'; mso-font-kerning: 1.0000pt">的点,有蓝色、绿色、黄色、还有红色,和彩虹的颜色类似小到要用显微镜才能看到,(……),这些小点肯定是从什么地方来的,可能这屋里的某个窗户是色彩斑斓的,所以才有彩色的点,便四处看,是没找到。我开门出去,又推门进来,但是这些小点依然还在。后来,我又放置鼓风炉的地方,可是那里的空中依然有彩色的小点。

3.2.3 逻辑推理的想象对等

1In 1926, when Jóska was about five and a half years old, a big and heavy wooden block fell on his head he received a very severe concussion. For a few weeks he remained in a comatose condition.Tamara151

这一段讲述的是约斯卡第一次萨满启蒙的起因1926年,约斯卡大约5岁半的时候, “a big and heavy wooden block fell on his head he received a very severe concussion”(他的头被一个又大又重的木砸中了患上了严重的脑震荡。连续几周,都处于昏迷状态)。这次昏迷期间,他经历了一次在白光中行走的萨满启蒙。

那么我们不禁要问,他的头为何会被砸中?译者、包括读者很有可能对约斯卡的这次被砸经历产生其他遐想:既然他是萨满,那么木块是不是从天而降或者又是某一种神奇的力量把他砸中,这些联想不免会使读者的逻辑推理产生错误,给译者的翻译也带来了一定影响所以说,对这一事件的因果关系不清楚,译者和主人公、译文读者与主人公就不能实现逻辑推理的想象对等。

为了解决这个问题译者Dirk的文章中找到了一些答案,Dirk在是这样写

He was playing outside with the village kids, and they were making a lot of noise. There was a farmer who had been warning them that they had to be quiet, because his wife was ill. They were quiet for a moment, but then they continued to make noise. The farmer had already warned them three times, when suddenly, he appeared with a big stick and threw it at the playing kids. The stick hit Joska and he fell down unconscious. He did not remember what happened next, but his mother told him that he was between life and death for weeks. The stick had hit him in such a way as to hinder his breathing and he was in danger of suffocation. The function of that part of the brain responsible for the breathing process was not damaged, but it was deregulated. He had a serious concussion. He remembered that in the period while he was unconscious he was living and traveling in white light. (Dirk, 2001)

他讲了事情的来龙去脉,事情的起因是他和小伙伴们玩耍的时候,吵到了农夫和农夫生病的妻子,农夫警告过他们三次不要再吵了可是他们不听,忍无可忍的农夫突然抓起一根木棒朝这些吵闹的孩子们扔去,恰好砸到了约斯卡他就什么都不记得了,后来他的母亲告诉他,他昏迷了几周,生命垂危。这一棒打得他差点断了气,险些窒息。大脑保障呼吸的功能没有受损,但是不受控制了,他得了严重的脑震荡。

对于这次被砸事件,译者译文中以加注的方式来解释当时的情况,有助于实现逻辑推断的想象对等,避免逻辑推理的错误,从而实现译文读者与事实的对等。除此之外,译者在初译文本中,用 “一个又大又重的木头”来翻译 “a big and heavy wooden block”,但在知道事情的来龙去脉之后,才知道 “wooden block 不是指木头,而是指“木棒”,表达木棒的量词也应该是“一根”而不是“一个”。

初译:1926年,约斯卡大约5岁半的时候,他的头被一个又大又重的木头砸中了,致使他陷入了持续数周的严重昏迷状态。

改译:在1926年,约斯卡大约5岁半的时候,他的头被一根又大又重的木棒砸中了,致使他陷入了持续数周的严重昏迷状态

事情的起因是约斯卡和小伙伴们玩耍的时候,吵到了农夫和他生病的妻子,农夫警告过他们三次不要再吵了可是他们不听,忍无可忍的农夫突然抓起一根很重的木棒朝这些吵闹的孩子们扔去,恰好砸到了约斯卡(译者译自Dirk, 2001)。

2 “Then, I turned off my electric lamp and I sat in the darkness, to listen to the silence. There is soft warmth down there, like in a cave. During my meditations I tried to connect with the delicate vibration in and around me. On a certain day, I suddenly saw the figure of Christ appearing to me, twice the size of the work I made later. But it was no painting, it was an appearance of light although I switched off my lamp and it was pitch-dark.” (Hartzema 1985). (Tamara157)

段描述的是约斯卡在二战期间被迫在煤矿工作时经历的一次萨满启蒙。整段构造了一个基本完整可以通过译者、读者的想象构造出来的场景。

整个场景的想象过程如下:在井下,他电灯,坐在黑暗,在周围一片寂静聆听。他感受到矿井下绵绵的暖流,像是只有山洞里才有的暖流。他开始冥想,将体内以及周围的细微震动和自身联系起来。突然有一天,耶稣的形象出现在面前,后来他还将他看到的耶稣了下来,只是大小不同,耶稣画像只有当时看到的二分之一

最后一句话 But it was no painting, it was an appearance of light although I switched off my lamp and it was pitch-dark 中,一共有四个意群:第一,耶稣的形象不是画;第二,从外表来看像似光;第三,我关了灯;第四,矿井下一片漆黑。从表面看“那不是画,从外表看那就是光”,与“我关了灯,井下一片漆黑”没有明显转折关系。这四个元素如果要结合在一起的话,逻辑结构应该是这样的:当时因为我关了灯,所以井下一片漆黑,突然,一束像耶稣的光出现了,是光而不是画,因为如果是画的话,那么在一片漆黑当中,我是看不见的,只有发光了,我才能在黑暗中看见。所以为了符合逻辑推理,译者认为有必要在翻译时,对这一句话的四个意群的前后顺序作出调整。

译文:这期间我关掉电灯,坐在黑暗中,聆听周围的寂静。我感受到矿井下有绵绵的暖流,像是山洞里才有的暖流冥想的时候,我试着将体内以及周围的细微震动和自己联系起来,日复一日。突然有一天,耶稣的形象出现在我面前,两倍于我后来画的他的画像。因为我当时已经把灯关上了,井下一片漆黑,所以那绝不是一副画,就是光

3Jóska was born, just like the old shaman, with a caul. Normally, when a child is born like this, a small piece of chorion remains wrapped around the newborn child, but in Jóska's case, the chorion remained completely intact, and was not broken at all during delivery. In different traditional cultures this event is often seen as a sign that the child may be a chosen one. (Tamara149)

这一段讲的内容是约斯卡与众不同的出生。他出生时 “with a caul”,即包裹在羊膜囊里,他的 “chorion remained completely intact” ,即绒毛膜是完好无损译者在构建约斯卡出生画面时,思维受到了来自知识层面的阻碍,为了保证翻译的质量,译者通过网络,查找了 “caul”  “chorion” 的意思和区别:

Caul (or cowl) is a membrane in obstetrics and in cooking. In obstetrics, the caul is the amnion, one of the two fetal membranes, the other being the chorion. The amnion, or caul, encloses the amniotic sac (which is what breaks before most deliveries and this is the event which usually precipitates labor). To be "born in a caul," that is to say in an intact unbroken amniotic sac, means to be born with the head covered by the amnion.

(http://www.medical-library.net/content/view/1077/41/by Ron Kennedy, M.D., Santa Rosa, CA)

根据这一解释,我们可以了解 “fetal membranes” 为胎膜,包括 “caul”,也就 “the amnion” 羊膜和 “chorion” 绒毛膜中,“the amnion” 里面有 “amniotic sac” 羊膜囊。如果婴儿出生时,依然在羊膜 里,即指一个完整,没有破损的羊膜囊 “chorion”在外侧, “amnion” 在内侧。

Tamara的文章时,我们可能会这样推断约斯卡出生前后的场面:在吵杂产房或是约斯卡的家里,所有人都忙前忙后,热切期盼约斯卡的诞生,最后,他竟然是以完全包裹在羊膜里的方式出生的,所以大家都惊讶不已,兴奋不已按照他们的文化,这个婴儿一定是上帝的选民大家都认为将来一定大有作为但是这样的推断是否与当时的场景相符呢?这就涉及到了译者是否向主人公靠拢的问题。为了解决这一问题,译者查找了Dirk Gillabel的文章,其中有一段文字如下:

Joska Soos was born in a shaman clan, de Bacsa, and he was born with the caul. At the time of his birth nobody was home, they were all working in the field. His mother didn’t dare to do anything, and thus Joska was born and remained inside the caul, still connected to his mother with the umbilical cord for a full twenty minutes, when finally a neighbor came by. His unusual birth did not go unnoticed by the village shaman, who took him under his protection. (Dirk2001)

约斯卡出生时包裹羊膜囊里。在他出生的那一刻,家人都在田地里耕作,没人陪伴照顾他们母子。他的母亲一动也不动,所以他出生后一直通过脐带和他的母亲连在一起在羊膜囊里足足等待20分钟,直到一个路过的邻居发现了他们母子。

这一段话颠覆了译者对约斯卡出生的想象,使译者对约斯卡出生前后推理想象更加完整,所以译者通过加注的方式,将此段作为补充,以便使读者能够向译者和主人公一样,使前后的逻辑更加清晰明了。

译文:索尔特的托马斯·巴克斯是一位萨满,同时也是马商和铁匠,很快他就注意到了与众不同的约斯卡,因为这个婴儿出生时和他自己一样,都被羊膜囊包裹着,等到约斯卡大一点后,他便被收他做学徒。通常情况下,婴儿出生时身上只附着绒毛膜的一部分,但是约斯卡的绒毛膜却完好无损。这样出生的婴儿在不同的传统文化里,都可能被看成是上帝的选民。

①“约斯卡出生时包裹羊膜囊里。在他出生的那一刻,家人都在田地里耕作,没人陪伴照顾他们母子。他的母亲一动也不动,所以他出生后一直通过脐带和他的母亲连在一起在羊膜囊里足足等待20分钟,直到一个路过的邻居发现了他们母子。” (译者译自Dirk, 2001

4During the many visits that Jóska Sóos made to the Tibetan monks in London, he learned more and more about the use and the effects of the singing bowls. The monks used these bowls in the course of their long prayers and meditations in order to experience their sounds and vibrations. In the seances of Jóska Soós the bowls represent the element sound, in accordance with the first axiom that was already mentioned above (“the main issue is sound”). Next to this symbolic function, they also have a practical one. They can be used, just like the drum, as a way of evoking a certain ecstatic state, but thanks to the strong vibrations these bowls produce when played, they can be put on or near the body to give a kind of “sound massage”.Tamara166

这一段中,Tamara简要讲述了约斯卡去伦敦时见过西藏僧侣并学会了颂的使用方法一事西藏僧侣教会约斯卡如何 play the singing bowls,介绍颂钵在被 play 时能够发出强烈的震动,可以像萨满鼓一样,被用来促使萨满进入出神状态。颂钵被放在身上或身旁时可以传达一种声音信息。play 这一动词的翻译,关系到读者对这一段话的整体理解。为了准确翻译 “play,实现主人公、原文作者、译者、译文读者之间逻辑推理的想象对等,译者查找了相关的资料。西藏颂“受到击打或摩擦时便会产生共振,在装满水后,碗中的液体会随着震动而起舞……随着振幅的增加,波浪开始在液体的表面形成,直至最终变得没有秩序,并相互碰撞在一起,进而喷出液滴,在某些频率和振幅下,这些液滴看起来似乎在表面上漂浮和漫步”(赵路,2011)。现在颂钵也被用作治疗心理或生理疾病,受到很多人的追捧。基于以上认识,译者认为西藏颂钵的 “play方法包括击打和摩擦,但是由于不能断定每一次僧侣和约斯卡是用哪种方式来使用颂钵的,所以 “play” 这一英文单词,翻译成两个汉语动词 “击打或者摩擦”,虽然在形式上,并不对等,但可以为整体画面的想象提供帮助

译文:约斯卡•苏斯在伦敦见过几回西藏僧侣,学会了西藏颂钵的用法,并了解了颂钵的用途。僧侣们在坐禅和冥想时通过击打和摩擦颂钵来感受声音和震动。在降神会上,约斯卡•苏斯以颂钵的震动来代表声音元素,与前文提到的第一个支柱的第一个原则(主要问题是声音)相对应。除了象征功能,颂钵还具有实用性,它可以像萨满鼓一样,作为引入出神状态的工具。由于击打和摩擦颂钵可以引起较强的震动,所以把颂钵放在身体或身旁,人们便可以体验颂钵带来的“声音按摩”。


4章 结论

由于英文原文的主要内容为萨满约斯卡的生平事迹,所以许多内容是约斯卡个人的萨满启蒙经历、体会和顿悟。他作为萨满,经历了众多译者无法经历的事件,看到了众多译者无法看到的场景,叙述了很多译者无法判断真假的故事,所以在翻译的过程中,译者遇到了很多困难,主要集中在想象萨满启蒙场景、理顺逻辑关系这些问题上。在翻译这两篇文章的过程译者将遇到的问题和困难进行了归纳和总结,发现全部问题的根源就在于译者不断追求一种想象对等,也可以理解为希望译文准确、到位、忠实,经得起考证期待汉语读者的想象尽量和作者、主人公、译者对等。通过问题的分析推理本文作者最终想象对等问题分为三个层次:一是实体概念词的想象对等,二是场景画面的想象对等,三是逻辑推理的想象对等。从想象主体来讲,包括原作者、原作主人公、原作读者、译者、审校人员、译文读者。翻译的过程中,有时要求译者与原作者达到想象对等,有时需要译者和译文读者实现想象对等,有时需要译者与原文主人公达到想象对等,有时需要译者发挥能动性从而实现译文与历史的对等,可以称之为“交互式”的想象对等,面对具体问题时,还需要具体分析,确定优先对等。在无法实现绝对的想象对等问题出现时,译者还提出了“三个靠拢”,即译者向原作者靠拢、译者向原文主人公靠拢、译者向历史靠拢。总结本次翻译实践,基本上是一次从感性认识到理性认识,再将理性认识应用到实践当中解决问题的过程本篇论文提出的想象对等“三个层次”、“六个主体”和“三个靠拢”是基于原文由许多内容需要构建想象画面的实际情况,而总结出的一些翻译方法,是否适用于其他类型文本,还有待考证,具有一定的局限性。但是希望本篇文章能够起到抛砖引玉的作用,为其他宗教类、传记类文章的翻译提供一个新思路。


参考文献

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附录

附录1 原文(英文原文本:图片格式)

附录2 原文与译文(英汉对照翻译)

JÓSKA SOÓS. A SHAMAN AS ARTIST

 萨满画家约斯卡·苏斯

     In discovering Jóska Soós' works, we come in contact with a strange language of imagery. It is rooted in a shamanistic tradition, its origins are to be found in Hungary, and it has links with shamanistic cultures worldwide. At the same time, we can enter the field of contemporary art. Jóska Soós' ideas were collected in interviews intended to make his personal visions and ideas on shamanism and his own works more clear to the reader. In this way the artist himself had the chance to explain his very original view on shamanism and its place in the world.

我们在研究约斯卡·苏斯的画作过程中,接触到一种很奇特的意象语言,这是一种根植于萨满传统的语言,源头可追溯到匈牙利,并且与世界其他地区的萨满文化也有千丝万缕的联系。与此同时,我们也走进了当代艺术领域。约斯卡·苏斯的谈话录有不少被收集和整理,他对萨满教以及自己的作品的观点已向读者表述的十分清楚。通过这种方式,作为艺术家的约斯卡充分表达了他对萨满教以及萨满教在世界上的地位的看法。

Biography of Jóska Soós

     Jóska Soós was born on the 20th of December 1921, in Apostag, a small village near Budapest. When he was four years old, his parents, brother and sister moved to the capital, but Jóska remained in the countryside with his grandparents, who lived in Solt, a little village about 95 kilometres from Budapest. It is here that the local shaman, Tamas Bacsi, who worked as a horse-trader and a smith, quickly noticed him and took the young boy in as his apprentice. Jóska was born, just like the old shaman, with a caul. Normally, when a child is born like this, a small piece of chorion remains wrapped around the newborn child, but in Jóska's case, the chorion remained completely intact, and was not broken at all during delivery. In different traditional cultures this event is often seen as a sign that the child may be a chosen one. The artist himself gives another explanation:

约斯卡·苏斯简介

约斯卡·苏斯,1921年12月20日出生于匈牙利奥波什陶格,那是一座距离首都布达佩斯很近的小村庄。约斯卡四岁时,被父母送到了小村庄索尔特,寄养在祖父母家里,他的父母、兄长和姊妹则移居布达佩斯,索尔特与布达佩斯仅有95公里的路程。索尔特的托马斯·巴克斯是一位萨满,同时也是马商和铁匠,他注意到了与众不同的约斯卡,因为这个婴儿出生时和他自己一样,都被羊膜囊包裹着,等到约斯卡大一点后,他便被收他做学徒。通常情况下,婴儿出生时身上只附着绒毛膜的一部分,但是约斯卡的绒毛膜却完好无损。这样出生的婴儿在不同的传统文化里,都可能被看成是上帝的选民。画家自己给出了另外一个解释:

     "The birth of most children is very difficult. It takes too long and, in many cases, the child is born half suffocated. But those born with a caul still have enough oxygen in the chorion and this enables them to keep on breathing during birth. Now the following happens. During a difficult birth, the finest brain cells for the lack of oxygen, die. These cells are the ones that possess the so-called paranormal functions and they are damaged or die off during birth, because all cells can heal, except the brain cells. In this way, people that are born in the "normal" way, lose all their paranormal abilities, but those born with a caul still possess these spiritual faculties" (Hartzema 1985).

“大多数婴儿的出生都非常艰难,耗费很长时间,一半婴儿还会伴有呼吸困难。但降生时被包裹在羊膜囊中的婴儿却有足够的氧气来呼吸。在艰难的‘正常’出生过程中,婴儿最好的脑细胞会因为缺氧而死亡或破损。而死亡的脑细胞恰恰是所谓的具有超常功能的部分,其他细胞可以修复,但是脑细胞却无法修复,这些脑细胞一旦死亡,婴儿就失去了超能力,但绒毛膜完整的婴儿却保存了超能力”(Hartzema 1985)。

     Another aspect that influenced Tamas Bacsi's decision was that Jóska descended from a very old shaman clan called the Bacsaclan, to which the old man also belonged. As his disciple, Jóska visited the old shaman every day and he could observe his shamanistic ways of healing and form his own conclusions about what he had learned and seen. He was not the only apprentice; there were three or four others. Since Tamas Bacsi was a smith, a horse-trader and a shaman, his knowledge was meant for the healing of both animals and human beings. During his youth, Jóska had the opportunity to experience different shamanistic rituals and step by step he was tested and initiated in the traditional knowledge of the shaman. Till the present day his own experiences in and with shamanism remain an important background in his works.

约斯卡和托马斯一样,是古老的巴克萨可兰萨满氏族的后裔,这也是托马斯收他为徒的另一个重要原因。作为徒弟,约斯卡每天都去拜访老萨满,观察他是如何用萨满法术为人治病的,之后他再把所学所见的知识总结归纳起来。除了约斯卡之外,托马斯还有其他三四个徒弟。同时作为铁匠、马商和萨满的他,理所当然既能医人又能医兽。这给年纪轻轻的约斯卡很多亲自参与各种萨满仪式的机会,他也逐步经受住了萨满传统的考验,受到了激发。如今,约斯卡少年时的这些亲身经历和他所学到的萨满知识依然是他创作的重要背景。

     The healing rituals the old shaman performed had a very simple set-up. During the ritual, the shaman sang, not in words, but in loose sounds (Hartzema 1985). By using these sounds he tried to arouse another vibration that could lead him to a different level of consciousness. In this condition, he was able to gain a deeper insight in the problems or diseases of the patient that he was treating. During the seances which Jóska performs now, the same elements reappear which he witnessed while observing his tutor:

老萨满托马斯作法祛病的仪式非常简单。起初是唱歌,歌词不是完整的单词,而是含糊的音节(Hartzema 1985)。他用力发音来引起颤动,这种颤动把他带到另外一个意识层次。这样,他便对病人的问题或是病情有更深层的了解。老萨满作法时出现过的自然力,也曾出现在约斯卡主持的降神会上。

     "When people come to me with their problems, then I start singing about their problems and through the sounds I reach a special state of mind that can be situated between being awake and falling asleep. It is a kind of hypnotic condition, a controlled trance, which the old shaman taught us. (...) Then sounds rise within my being and I come in contact with the person and get a psychological image of him. (...) This can happen in a few minutes, but sometimes it takes me up to half an hour to reach it. It depends on the openness of the person and it also depends on the positive mood and the atmosphere. I ask people to open themselves and neither believe nor disbelieve. No prejudice or judgment, but most people aren't very good at these things and have prejudices and judgments. This is the real problem, because it prevents them from coming in contact with the spiritual. And that is the goal of the shaman with spiritual intentions, he wants to reach spirit, become conscious, expand consciousness and quicken this process" (Hartzema 1985).

“如果有人来向我求助,我就先把他们的问题唱出来,唱出来的音调把我引入一种特殊的精神状态,介于沉睡和清醒之间,有如被催眠一般,属于一种可控的出神,这是老萨满教给我们的。(……)有一种声音在我身体里被唤起,然后我就和这些人建立起某种联系,并能看到他们的精神形象。(……)达到这种状态通常只需要几分钟,但是偶尔也会用上半个小时,时间长短取决于患者的思想开放程度,也取决于正面情绪和氛围。我跟他们说你们不用信,也不用不信,不要心存偏见,也别妄加指责。可是大多数人都不懂萨满,固执己见。这是一个客观存在的障碍,阻碍患者和神灵之间建立联系,但建立联系正是萨满的目的,他需要触及灵魂,需要有意识,再扩大意识范围,从而加快仪式进程”(Hartzema 1985)。

     In many of his paintings, Jóska Soós tries to reproduce light and sounds, through signs and light reflections. His method of working is largely influenced by the healing rituals of Tamas Bacsi, which he could observe during his tuition.

约斯卡·苏斯在大多数作品中都试着通过符号和光的反射再现光和声音。这一创作手法深深受益于他年轻时对老萨满用法术治病的仔细观察。

     In 1926, when Jóska was about five and a half years old, a big and heavy wooden block fell on his head he received a very severe concussion. For a few weeks he remained in a comatose condition. During this long period of unconsciousness, and for the first time in his life, he was able to experience another state of mind, a state that he could experience later again in the course of one of his shamanistic initiations. He describes this condition as a kind of "travelling in white light:"

1926年约斯卡大约5岁半的时候,他的头被一根又大又重的木棒砸中了,致使他陷入了持续数周的严重昏迷状态。在这段长时间的无意识状态里,他第一次经历了神智的另外一种状态,在后来的一次萨满启蒙中,这种状态又再次出现过。这次经历被约斯卡描述为“穿行在白光之中”。

     "I travelled in white light. These were the same elements which I experienced in my initiations, but this time I really went through it (I really experienced it). In the initiation I only watched it from a distance, I did nothing more but looking at it. But when I was unconscious I went through it, as if it were some kind of smoke. I also felt myself as fume and I got impressions of powers, as if I was going through electromagnetic fields. (...) I really enjoyed myself. I experienced myself as timeless, spaceless, a kind of all-encompassing consciousness. That is how I experienced it" (Hartzema 1985).

“我穿行在白光之中。在我初学萨满时,见过那种自然力,但这一次我真实地穿过了它,是亲身经历。在萨满启蒙时,我曾从远处观察过这种白光,但仅仅是观察而已。可是,在我精神恍惚的时候,却能在白光中穿行。这种白光好像是一种烟雾,我觉得自己也如同烟雾一般,感觉周围有力的存在,那种力就像穿行在磁场中所能感受到的磁场力。(…)我感觉非常好,觉得自己周围没有时间,也没有空间,我好像处于宏大的宇宙意识中,这里囊括了的一切,我也与这一切合而为一,这就是我的经历”(Hartzema 1985)。

     At the age of six, at the end of August 1927, he experienced his first conscious initiation into shamanism, when he was on the road with the old shaman, in a covered wagon, riding towards an annual market where the old man used to buy horses. While he was hanging in loose, rhythmical sounds, Jóska was able to reach a new level of consciousness, which was similar to the condition he experienced before, in a coma. He describes this condition as being half-asleep, at the edge of sleep, a condition in which he was able to make an initiatory trip. This changed his structure of thoughts so completely that he was later taken for observation in a psychiatric institution to study his abnormal behaviour.

1927年8月末,6岁的约斯卡经历了第一次有意识的萨满学习,当时,他和老萨满一起驾着大篷车,去老萨满经常买马的集市。约斯卡骑在马背上,两条腿松垮的搭在马肚子上,边走边发出有节奏的声响。伴着声响,约斯卡进入了另一层次的意识境界,这和他被砸昏那次很像。他说当时自己处于半睡状态,并在这种状态下经历了初级旅程。从那以后,他的思想结构彻底改变了,后来,有精神机构为了研究他的反常行为,还对他进行了观察研究。

     "On the way to the fair, I made a real cosmic journey, into the micro- and macrocosmos at the same time; I travelled to the starry sky and experienced what matter is. I didn't meet any human being or an extraterrestrial there, but I experienced the structure of the material universe" (Hartzema 1985). This initiation was the first of a whole series of initiations that extended over the different years of his childhood. In the village where he lived, Jóska often came in contact with the traditional Hungarian culture. He saw many totem poles in the Protestant graveyards. The poles were used as a substitute for gravestones. In this way the Protestant faith of the deceased and his family could be demonstrated to the community. These poles left an indelible impression on him, in such a deep way that even in his most recent works, different aspects of the Hungarian totem poles keep re-appearing and are being used by him as a shamanistic archetype:

“在去集市的路上,我经历了一次宇宙之旅,在同一时间来到了微观宇宙和宏观宇宙;我穿行在闪耀的星空里,经历了物质,我没有见到人类或地球外物质,但是我见到并体会到了物质宇宙的结构 (Hartzema 1985)。这次启蒙是约斯卡整个少年时期一系列启蒙中的第一次。他常能在索尔特接触到匈牙利的传统文化。他在新教徒的墓地里看到很多图腾柱,也就是墓碑的代替品。逝者及其家人以这种方式证明他们是新教徒。这些图腾柱给约斯卡留下了深刻印象,不同角度的匈牙利图腾柱作为萨满的原型经常出现在他最新的一些作品里:

     "First of all there are the totems which I saw as dolls. I already incorporated them in my works from 1949 on, until 1950, but I still use them in the paintings, which I make nowadays. For me, they represent the embryonic condition of the human kind. By the way, magic dolls are not an isolated phenomenon, they can be found in nearly every civilization, where they are represented in different ways. The totems are a direct link to the traditional culture. In shamanism one can find different kinds of totem elements as well. In fact the totem is an embodiment of the personal energies, in connection with an ancestor or an animal. Through the totem, one can connect with this energy. I experienced the totem and its energy for the first time in Hungary, in my village. It was on Ash Wednesday. I was always dressed as a little devil and I had a big wooden stick in my hands. We used to beat on the ground, to chase away the devil, the winter or the bad spirits and we also had some of those little magic dolls, totem figures, to chase away the negative energies. These are all memories of my childhood in Hungary. Later, I started to use these energies, which I got to know as a child, in a more conscious way and I learned that it is a universal phenomenon. Even now I still use it. In Hungary I often saw totem poles which were used as crosses on a grave.

“首先,有一些图腾在我看来就像人偶一样,从1949年起至1950年间,我就在作品里吸收了这些元素,现在的作品里也有体现。在我看来,它们象征一种人类的胚胎。顺便提一下,有魔力的人偶不是一个独立的现象,几乎在所有文明里都有所体现,只是表示的方式不同而已。图腾直接关联到传统文化,从萨满教中也可以找到多种图腾因素。事实上,图腾是个人能量的具体化,关系到祖先或者某种动物,通过图腾就可以接触到这种能量,我曾在匈牙利——我的家乡感受过图腾的能量。每年的圣灰星期三(复活节前的第七个星期三)我都会穿的像个小撒旦一样,手里拿着一个木杖,不停是用手杖敲打地面,以此来驱赶魔鬼,赶走冬天和恶灵。我们也有一些神奇的小娃娃,图腾人,它们可以驱赶负能量。这是我在匈牙利童年的所有记忆。后来,我开始使用图腾的能量。即使是今天,我依然会用到我在孩提时代就知道的东西。如今我在匈牙利还能经常看到代替墓碑十字的图腾柱。

     These poles were made of wood and they clearly showed whether the deceased was a man or a woman. In most cases, the man had a star, as a symbol while the woman's symbol was a flower. This custom appeared on the Protestant graveyards, ever since the 16'h century. In that century, the Protestant doctrine entered the country and to show their conversion, people went back to an ancient shamanistic tradition, the totem-pole. This inspired me and I still use it" (Hartzema 1985).

这些木制的图腾柱清楚地表明了逝者的性别。通常情况之下,一颗星星代表男性,一朵花代表女性。直到16世纪,这种传统依然可以在新教徒的墓地见到,那是新教教旨深入乡村,展示出不同之处。人们回归到古老的萨满传统,回归到图腾柱。这给了我诸多灵感,到现在依然受用”(Hartzema 1985)。

The use of the magic doll is not only derived from seeing and studying the Protestant totem poles. Jóska did not only come in contact with the totem poles, he also observed elements from folk magic that was still very much alive in the small country village. Through this folk magic he also came in contact with what he later would call "the magic dolls." At the end of the winter, the people from the village made a doll of straw in a human shape and this doll was symbolically seen as the embodiment of all evil which people carried within them or somehow had experienced. They gave all the negativity to the doll by feeling and touching it and hurled curses at it. Afterwards, the doll was brought out of the village to the riverside and there it was burned. All the remains (the ashes, etc.) were thrown into the water.

看到和研究过新教的图腾柱并不是约斯卡使用有魔力的人偶的唯一原因。还在于他观察到小村落里面依然鲜活的民间魔法元素。他通过这些魔法接触到了被他后来称之为“魔力人偶”的东西。在冬末,村里人用草编结成人形的人偶,这个人偶被看成是一个象征着人们内心的,或是人们经历过的全部有关邪恶的集合体。他们通过感受和触摸把所有消极的东西传给这个人偶,然后咒骂他。最后,他们把这个人偶带出小村子,拿到河边烧掉,还把所有烧剩下的东西(灰等)都扔到河里去。

Another element that impressed Jóska very deeply was the use of "magic signs" by the old shaman:

另一个对约斯卡影响特别深的因素是老萨满画的神奇符号:

"Sometimes he would draw simple signs in the dust on the ground, with his thumb or with two or three fingers. At the time, we thought he was doing this for no reason, but now I think it surely had a meaning. These were magic signs, and sometimes we imitated it. He often did it when people came to him with a certain problem or a special question about something they wanted to know. He also drew magic signs on a sick animal, especially on cows and horses, on the ill spot. Sometimes, he would draw on the head, on the chest, or on the back and with cows on the udder, when the animal did not produce enough milk. He would draw and he would sing. It looked like a formula or a spell, but he encouraged us to imitate him" (Hartzema 1985).

“有时候,他用拇指,或是两三个手指在有尘土的地上画一些简单的符号。当时我们不认为他是出于什么目的才画的,但是现在回想起来,那些符号一定有特殊的意义。以前我们也会模仿着画那些神奇符号。他通常在别人问他一些特别的事,或者问了一些特别的问题时才画。他经常在有病的动物身上画,常常是在牛马生病的部位,比如头上,胸口上,或是背上,当奶牛产奶少的时候,他还在牛的乳房上画。他边画边唱,好像那是一种规则,或者符咒,他鼓励我们模仿他”(Hartzema 1985)。

Only much later, in 1945, Jóska started to use these unintentionally:

后来约斯卡无意间也开始画这些符号,只是那时已经是1945年了。

"I still remember, in 1945, when I was on my way to a friend in Holland, I suddenly got the impulse to take a piece of paper and a pen and almost automatically I started to draw such signs"(Hartzema 1985).

“我仍然记得1945年的时候,我去荷兰一个朋友家,去的路上我突然有拿起纸笔作画的冲动,然后我开始自然而然无意识地画这些符号”(Hartzema 1985)。

Much later, he intentionally started to use these signs in his works, as an expression of his childhood memories from Hungary, but also as a concrete, almost magic message which he likes to give to each of his works.

后来,约斯卡开始有意识地把这些符号画在作品里,记录他在匈牙利时的童年记忆,也把符号作为一种具体的,几乎是神奇的信息放在作品里。这是他作画的偏好。

From the age of seven, almost every Sunday J6ska would go to the Protestant church, where he and some other children had to pump the bellows of the organ. Very often he put himself with his back against the pipes of the organ to feel the vibrations of the sounds in his body. This reinforced his sensitivity for sound and vibration. When Jóska was ten years old, in 1931, he moved to his parents in Budapest to attend the secondary school. During the school holidays, he always returned to Solt to work on the land and to stay in touch with Tamas Bacsi. This way his training as a shaman wasn't interrupted; it could go on during the holidays. Attending secondary school changed a lot for Jóska. The education in Budapest differed a lot from the one he received in the country and his behaviour was considered as being strange by most of the teachers. Because they did not know how to interpret the behaviour of this "abnormal student," they decided to send him for observation to a mental hospital. Here the doctors came to an unexpected conclusion: Ferenczi, a disciple of Sigmund Freud and the head of the institution (Hartzema 1985), concluded, together with the other psychiatrists, that Jóska had to be considered as a genius and had to be treated with kindness and understanding.

7岁起,约斯卡几乎每个星期日都去新教教堂和其他小伙伴压管风琴的风箱。他靠在管子上,感受声音带给身体的震动。这个经历加强了他对声音和震动的敏感性。1931年约斯卡十岁时,他来到布达佩斯与父母团聚,并进入中学学习。他经常在假期回索尔特干农活,也常去找托马斯·巴克斯学习萨满法术。正因为如此,他的萨满训练才一直没有中断。中学的学习使约斯卡改变了许多。布达佩斯特的教育和村里的教育有很大不同。他的行为举止在大多数老师看来很奇怪,但又不知道怎样阻止这名“奇怪的学生”,于是他们决定让他去精神病院观察治疗。可是弗兰兹,作为精神病院院长和西蒙·弗洛伊德的信徒和其他精神病专家(Hartzema 1985),得出一个出人意料的结论:约斯卡是个天才,应该用爱心和理解来对待他。

When Jóska was at the age of twelve, he experienced three other initiations into shamanism. For the first one he had to search for a horse skull in the mud at the bottom of a lake. Because the water became cloudy with every step, Jóska had to eliminate his usual senses. To find the skull, he had to try and find another way to come in contact with the object. After about 40 minutes, he was able to locate the skull (Hartzema 1985). During the initiation he learned to open himself not only towards sensory experiences, but also towards other ways of experience. In that same period, his tutor told Jóska to search for half a red brick at the east side of a hill lying about four kilometres from his village. The hill was a remainder of a Turkish fortress from the 10 century, but all buildings had been destroyed because of intense agriculture. The search for the brick was his second initiation. To find the brick, he had to come in contact with the Turkish people that used to live at the site (Hartzema 1985). Again, he had to discard his usual senses to find the object in a different way. This test was meant to strengthen the impressions he received in the previous initiation. Shortly afterwards, he experienced his fourth initiation. This was one of a totally different kind: he had to stay on a grave, which he could choose at random, at the Protestant graveyard in the village for the whole night. There were two graves that interested Jóska: one belonged to an old woman, called Barbara; the second belonged to a young countess who died at the age of eight or ten. The old shaman was particularly interested in the dreams his pupils would have during this night. Jóska first sat at the grave of the old woman, but he did not feel happy there, so he went to the grave of the young countess, and here he quickly fell asleep:

当约斯卡12岁的时候,他经历了三次萨满启蒙。第一次:老萨满让他必须走进湖里,找到埋在泥里的马的头骨。越往湖中走,湖水就越浑浊,所以约斯卡必须摒弃他的平常感官。为了寻找头骨,他必须努力尝试其他方法。40分钟后,他终于找到了(Hartzema 1985)。在这次启蒙当中,他学到了不仅要从感官体验,还要从其他体验中开放自己。第二次:老萨满让约斯卡去距离索尔特4千米外的山的东侧寻找半块儿红砖。那座山是10世纪土耳其森林的遗留,但是因为过度农耕,所有建筑都被破坏了。为了寻找这块砖,他必须联系以前在这里生活过的土耳其人(Hartzema 1985)。他再一次摒弃了平常感官,另辟蹊径寻找砖头。这个测试的意图就是强化他在上一次启蒙时的感觉。此后不久,他就经历了第三次启蒙。这是一次与前两次完全不同的启蒙:他必须在村上的新教墓园里,选择一个墓碑,整晚待在那儿。约斯卡对其中的两个比较感兴趣,一个是老妇人芭芭拉的墓,一个是去世时年仅8岁到10岁之间的年轻女伯爵的墓。老萨满对孩子晚上做的梦特别感兴趣。约斯卡先是坐在了老妇人的墓旁,但是他没有感到愉快,所以他去了年轻女伯爵的墓,过了一会儿,就睡着了。

"Every now and then I woke up and I had remarkable dream visions of a heavy thunderstorm. The clouds in my dream were like two fighting bulls that produced thunder and lightning, like it is being told in the old Hungarian folk tales. (...) Then I fell asleep again and I had a series of white dreams, similar to the ones I had years before when I went with Tamas Bacsi to the annual market in the covered wagon. Now I dreamt that I was completely enclosed by glass, crystal or ice, and I became more and more silent inside myself. (...) The ice broke into pieces and I saw the white dimensions that attracted me very much. I was loosing myself in the whirlpool of infinite white dimensions that faded into different patterns and came towards me from all sides. They moved towards a light that was even brighter and more white, as a pit in which all dimensions disappeared, and it was my inner voice that told me not to go any further. So, I remained at the side of the whirlpool of light and I did not proceed. (...) The old man explained my first dream and told me that I saw my ancestors fighting to become my master, but because I could not clearly see who the winner was, it was up to me to choose the one I wanted to belong to. Both shamans kindly disposed towards me but one had to be the superior as a master. (...) About my second dream, he told me that these shamans had prevented me from disappearing into the white hole and that I had to take care never to fall into the whirlpool" (Hartzema 1985).

“我经常半夜醒来,清楚的记得梦境中的场面。那是一场大雷阵雨,梦中的乌云像两头战斗的公牛,他们相撞产生雷和闪电。就像老匈牙利民间传说中讲述的那样。(……)然后我就又睡着了,梦一连串儿的白色的梦,类似我多年前和托马斯·巴克斯赶着大篷车在马背上做的梦。现在,我会梦见自己完全被玻璃,水晶,或者是冰包围,我感觉自己内心越来越寂静,后来冰裂成碎片,白色的维度就出现在了我的眼前,这些维度非常非常吸引我。在这无穷尽的白色维度中有一个漩涡,我在涡流里一点一点迷失,同时,这些维度也逐渐消散成各种形状,并从四面八方向我的方向移动。这些维度向一个漩涡移动,那个光点比白色维度要更明亮,更白,就像一个陷阱,所有维度都在里面消失了。我身体内的一种声音告诉我,不要再往前走。所以,我在光的漩涡的外侧停下来,没有继续往前走。(……)老萨满解释了我第一个梦,说我看见的场景是祖先为了当我的师傅而战斗,但是因为我不能清晰地看见胜利者是哪一个,所以我可以任选其一。两个萨满都想教我,但是只有能证明自己更优秀的萨满才能胜任。(……)关于我的第二个梦,师傅解释说这些萨满保护了我,使我免于消失在白洞中,要注意永远不要掉进漩涡”(Hartzema 1985)。

The outbreak of World War II ended his exceptional way of life. Jóska had to leave Hungary and was forced to work in Germany until the end of the war. Afterwards he was not able to return to Hungary for many years, because the Russians invaded the country and proclaimed it a communist country. Shortly after the war ended he went to Maastricht in the Netherlands, but after waiting for eight months he was told that he would not be able to get a residence permit. In 1946, out of sheer necessity, he moved to Charleroi in Belgium. To be able to become a Belgian national, he had no other option than to work in the coal mines in Marcinelle, close to Charleroi for a period of five years:

二次世界大战的爆发结束了约斯卡不寻常的生活方式,他不得不离开匈牙利,被迫在战争结束的时候展转德国。因为俄国人入侵了匈牙利,并使之成为社会主义国家,所以之后的很多年,他都没能回到匈牙利。战争结束后,他与其他人一同去了荷兰的马斯特里赫特,但经过8个月的等待,他得到的却是被拒签居住许可证的通知。1946年,他们不得已又去了比利时的沙勒罗瓦。为了取得比利时国籍,他们不得不在马瑟内尔,一个离沙勒罗瓦比较近的地方,做了5年煤矿工,别无他选。

"I worked for five years in the mines, out of sheer necessity. I worked there until the beginning of 1952. In May 1946, I had to start working in the mines and I had to respect those five years. The minister promised us that we could be free after a period of two years and then we could receive our passport, so that we had the possibility to find other work somewhere in Belgium. But he did not keep his promise, so we had to work those five years there. If we did not appear for three days at work, the fourth day two police officers would fetch us and then we had the choice either to go back to work or to end up in prison. When this happened, you had to stay there and wait until transport could be organised to be repatriated. We weren't handled with velvet gloves, like nowadays. We also got the message: 'We can come for you twice, but the third time you shall go straight to prison to wait for repatriation!' This was a serious threat to us. So, until April-May 1952, I had to work in the coal mines" (Hartzema 1985).

“我在矿上一直工作到1952年初,一共是5年,完全是迫不得已。在1946年5月份,我开始在矿上工作,我也不得不向那5年致敬。当时的管事向我们保证说,工作两年以后我们就自由了,就可以拿到签证。只有拿到签证,才能在比利时的其他地方找到工作。但是他不信守承诺,我们不得不又工作了三年。如果我们旷工三天的话,第四天警察就会把我们抓回去,要是不回去干活,就永远蹲监狱。所以一旦被抓住,你就必须继续干活,等待签证,然后被遣返回国。那的人对我们从来不会手下留情,就像现在。我们还得到过这样一条消息:‘第二次逃跑我们还是会找到你,但是第三次你就得直接进监狱,等待遣送回国!’这对我们来说,是非常严重的威胁。所以,直到1952年的4、5月份,我依然不得不在矿上干活”(Hartzema 1985)。

This period would also have a great impact on his life. Despite of the darkness deep under the earth's surface, this period was the beginning of his first works. He could not experience the light of the sun, but soon he discovered a new kind of light in the darkness:

这段经历给他的人生带来了深刻的影响。这段时间的他除了忍受地球深处的黑暗之外,也是他工作的开始。那里没有阳光,但没过多久,他就发现了黑暗中的另一种光。

"When the team of workmen stopped working, it was my habit to remain in the mine on my own for 45 minutes. Then, I turned off my electric lamp and I sat in the darkness, to listen to the silence. There is soft warmth down there, like in a cave. During my meditations I tried to connect with the delicate vibration in and around me. On a certain day, I suddenly saw the figure of Christ appearing to me, twice the size of the work I made later. But it was no painting, it was an appearance of light although I switched off my lamp and it was pitch-dark. This impressed me very deeply and it touched me in a physical, psychological and spiritual way. From that moment on I started to consciously go back to my youth in Hungary and the different shamanistic experiences with Tamas Bacsi. I had done that before, in difficult periods, for example when I was working in Germany and when we heard the bombs exploding. This time though, it was a very conscious memory and I remembered the importance of my initiations and my experiences in shamanism. This also made me draw and paint more" (Hartzema 1985).

工人们都收工之后,我还会再多干45分钟。这期间我关掉电灯,坐在黑暗中,聆听周围的寂静。我感受到矿井下有绵绵的暖流,像是山洞里才有的暖流。冥想的时候,我试着将体内以及周围的细微震动和自己联系起来,日复一日。突然有一天,耶稣的形象出现在我面前,两倍于我后来画的他的画像。因为我当时已经把灯关上了,井下一片漆黑,所以那绝不是一副画,就是光。这次经历给我留下了非常深刻的印象,从身体上,心理上和灵魂上都触动了我。从那时起,我有意识地回溯到我匈牙利的儿童时期,回想跟托马斯·巴克斯学习时经历过的那些萨满启蒙。我曾在不同的时期有过类似的经历,例如当我在德国工作的时候,当我们听到炸弹爆炸声的时候。但这次的记忆是我处在有意识的状态下发生的,我记住了萨满启蒙以及萨满经历的重要意义,这也帮助我描绘出更多的作品”(Hartzema 1985)。

Although contact with his tutor was abruptly broken off during the war, Kiska not only remembered everything he had learned from the old shaman, he also continued his training by using his experiences with darkness and light in the mines. Thus the works of art were a perfect expression of all these experiences and initiations, an attempt to understand their impact fully. Since he never had an academic art training, he started to use very simple techniques in his first works:

尽管战争突然中断了他与托马斯的联系,但是约斯卡并没有忘记从老萨满那儿学到的知识。他继续用矿上的黑暗和光训练自己。艺术作品是对所有经历和启蒙的最完美的表达,是诠释他的经历的最完整的尝试。由于约斯卡从没有接受过艺术专业训练,所以他试着在早期的作品里采用最简单的画法:

"I started to draw, totally non-academic, with the crushed graphite of the pencil, and with my thumb I applied it to the paper. In this way I looked at the shadows that appeared on the paper and I tried to make something of it and later I reproduced what I had seen" (Hartzema 1985).

“我早期的画完全是不专业的作品,就是用手指沾上捣碎的铅笔芯,再在纸上作画,这样,就能从纸上看到暗影,我想把这些暗影用上,画点什么。后来,我重新画了一次,把我的想法画了进去”(Hartzema 1985)。

In 1947 Kiska married for the first time and after time their first daughter Christine was born. In 1948 he became the apprentice to Marcel Delmotte, a Belgian artist who at the time was a professor at the academy of Charleroi. When his work in the mines was finished, he often went to the private studio of the artist where he and other free students took lessons. Jóska showed Delmotte some of his own works and often talked about his childhood in Hungary and the archetypal images he had experienced. Delmotte encouraged him to keep on working with his beautiful memories and experiences. Jóska started to draw much more. He mostly drew elements out of his own childhood, such as the totem poles he used to see in the graveyards (Hartzema 1985), as well as the figure of Christ that appeared to him in the mines. Delmotte encouraged him to exhibit his work.

1947年,约斯卡结婚,他的第一个女儿也同年出生。第二年,他成为比利时艺术家马绍·戴尔莫特的徒弟,戴尔莫特当时是沙勒罗伊学院的教授。约斯卡从矿上收工后,经常来到他的私人工作室。在那儿,约斯卡和其他自由的学生一起听教授上课。约斯卡给戴尔莫特看了自己的作品,经常讲他在匈牙利的童年,以及见过的那些原始意象。戴尔莫特鼓励他继续使用那些美妙的记忆和经验来作画。约斯卡越画越多,他几乎把所有童年的素材都画出来了。例如他在墓园看到的图腾柱(Hartzema 1985),还有在做矿工时期看到的耶稣基督。戴尔莫特还鼓励他举办画展。

In 1950 he exhibited for the first time in Galerie du Parc in Charleroi and the personal success of this exhibition spurred him to carry on. From 1952, after having completed his five years in the mines, he regularly participated in a group exhibition of young Belgian artists under the name "Young Belgian Artists" in the "Palais des Beaux A, rts" in Brussels.'  (Jeunes Peintres Belges, in Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels.) Jóska also started working in the glass factory of Couillet, near Charleroi. He attended evening classes for two years to learn to work at a blast furnace and eventually worked as a technician at the furnace of Hainaut/Sambre in Couillet. He also worked in the control-room to follow the whole process.

1950年,他在沙勒罗伊的公园画廊成功举办了第一次展览,这极大的鼓舞了约斯卡继续从事创作。5年矿上生活结束时,已是1952年。之后他定期参加“布鲁塞尔‘美丽艺术宫殿’的‘比利时年轻艺术家’”展览团,这是一个由一群年轻比利时艺术家组成的团体。他还在离沙勒罗伊比较近的库耶玻璃厂找到一份工作。为了学习鼓风炉,他上了两年夜校,后来还当上了库耶埃诺和桑布尔河锅炉的技术员,负责控制室,跟踪锅炉工作的全部流程。

In 1955 his work "Je suis la Resurrection et la vie" (1950, pencil on paper) was awarded a bronze medal by the city of Paris and a year later he received the "Helene Jacque" award from the city of La Louviere in Belgium.

    1955年,他的作品“我是复活和生活”(1950年,纸上铅笔画)获得了巴黎市颁发的铜奖,第二年,他获得了比利时洛维尔市颁发的“海伦·雅克”奖。

In 1958 something happened that had a great impact on his life. In a fit of rage his landlady slashed several of his oil on canvas works with a knife. The profound shock to see the desecration of his art never left him. It caused a severe change in his works:

    1958年,有一件事给他的生活造成了很大冲击,他的女房东发火的时候,用剪刀剪了他的帆布油画作品。这件亵渎他作品的事使他震惊,至今都无法释怀。从那以后,他的作品也发生了很大变化:

"It happened when I was already working at the metallurgy. Some of my works were slashed and it caused such a shock that from 1958 up until 1988 I couldn't paint with oil on canvas any longer. This is the reason why so many of my works have been made on paper. It just died inside me. It was a huge psychological shock to me and only in '88 I was able to overcome it. But, I never worked with oil on canvas again, because in 1988 I started working with acrylic paint on canvas. Since 1958 I was no longer able to touch oil paint again!" (Hartzema 1985)

“这件事发生的时候,我已经开始从事与冶金相关的工作了。她剪毁了我的一些帆布油画,给我带来巨大的冲击,导致我从1958年到1988年期间,无法再用油料作画。”这就是为什么我的很多作品都是在纸上创作的。帆布油画在我心里死去了。对我来说,这是个巨大的心理障碍,直到1988年,我才克服它。但是,我已经不用油料,因为那年开始,我已经开始用丙烯酸颜料在帆布上作画了。我从1958年开始,就再没画油画了!”(Hartzema 1985)

These events lead him to look for other materials to work with. Up until 1988 he used Chinese ink, gouache, diluted gouache and aquarelle on paper and on wood.

这些事让约斯卡不得不去寻找其他材料作画。直到1988年,他发现了中国的墨汁、水粉颜料,并用稀释的水粉和水彩在纸或木头上创作。

In 1959, Jóska married for the second time. Despite the fact that he was no longer an apprentice of Tamas Bacsi, he further developed his shamanistic skills. In 1960-1961, Jóska experienced for the first time something his tutor had told him about when he was still a child:

1959年,约斯卡开始了第二段婚姻。虽然他已经不再是托马斯·巴克斯的徒弟,但也进一步训练了自己的萨满技巧。从1960年到1961年,约斯卡第一次体会到童年时期老萨满向他传授的知识:

"It happened in Belgium. I was working in the metal factory at the time; I was the supervisor of a blast-furnace and had the responsibility over 300 tons of iron ore. At a certain moment, I entered the control-room and suddenly I saw all kinds of little dots appear, microscopically small, but I saw them so clearly as if something had fallen from my eyes and I could suddenly SEE. The dots had all kinds of colours, blue, green, yellow and red, similar to the colours of the rainbow (...) It had to come from somewhere, I thought, and I was looking around searching for a coloured window. I could not find one. I opened the door, went outside and came back inside, but I was still seeing it. I went outside again, walked around the blast-furnace and I saw it there too, in the sky. Suddenly I remembered what Tamas Bacsi once told me: 'Just look at the vibrating dust in the sun and you will see the holes, the coloured holes'. Thirty years later, I suddenly saw the result, at a moment I really did not expect it and in the most profane circumstances. This was an initiation, it came through experiencing the multidimensionality at the micro- and macrocosmic level" (Hartzema 1985).

“当时我还在比利时的一家金属厂工作,我负责监控鼓风炉,监管超过300吨的铁矿石。就在一个时间点,我推开控制室的门,走进去,我的眼前突然出现很多非常非常小并呈现出各种颜色的点,有蓝色、绿色、黄色、还有红色,和彩虹的颜色类似,小到要用显微镜才能看到。这些小点肯定是从什么地方来的,可能这屋里的某个窗户是色彩斑斓的,所以才有彩色的点,我便四处看,但是没找到。我开门出去,又推门进来,但是这些小点依然还在。后来,我又去了放置鼓风炉的地方,可是那里的空气中依然有彩色的小点。突然,我想起托马斯·巴克斯曾跟我说过的一句话:‘仔细看阳光中的晃动尘土,你就能发现很多洞,很多彩色的洞’。30年后,我突然发现了答案,那一刻在我的意料之外,特别是它竟然发生在对神灵亵渎的地方。那是一次发生在微观宇宙和宏观宇宙之中的多维空间里的启蒙”(Hartzema 1985)。

In the more recent works, Jóska almost always hints at the multidimensional pattern.

约斯卡最新的作品几乎都是采用多维模式。

In 1961, after some successful exhibitions he was granted the prize of Abstract Art in Switzerland. In 1964 he had an exhibition in Dusseldorf, together with the art society "Malkasten". This exhibition became a personal success for him and he was offered a contract to work in Dusseldorf for a year, to see if he was able to continue his success. He refused the contract and came back to Belgium to concentrate on his work as an artist. In 1965 he moved with his family from Charleroi to Brussels. Here, in order to dedicate himself fully to his work, he stopped working and started his own studio. In the same year, for the first time since the outbreak of World War II, he had the opportunity to return to Hungary to visit his family. Here he learned of the death of his tutor Tamas Bacsi, who died during the course of the war (Hartzema 1985:71). From 1965 to 1976, he participated in the publication of an artist's magazine Fantasmagie2 which he founded with colleagues who all worked around the theme of contemporary fantastic and magical art. Here some of his works and exhibitions were also published. 2Fantasmagie. Bulletin trimestriel du centre international de l'actualite fantastique et magique.

1961年,在举办了一些成功的展览后,约斯卡获得了瑞士“抽象艺术”奖。1964年,他和“颜料盒”艺术社团在杜塞尔多夫共同举办了展览。对他个人来讲,这是一次成功的展览。他得到在杜塞尔多夫工作一年的机会,看是否能把成功延续下去,但他没有接受这次机会,而是回到了比利时,继续以艺术家的身份创作。在1965年,他举家从沙勒罗瓦搬到布鲁塞尔,放弃了其他工作,专注创作,还创办了自己的创作室。同年,他终于有机会回到匈牙利看望家人,这是二战后他第一次回家。回到匈牙利后,他才得知师傅托马斯·巴克斯已经在战争期间去世了。(Hartzema 1985:71)从1965年至1976年,他参加了艺术杂志 FantasmagieFantasmagie,Bulletin trimestriel du centre international de l'actualite fantastique et magique,幻想和魔幻的现实国际中心季刊)的出版工作。这是他与从事现实幻想和魔幻艺术创作的同行们共同创作的杂志。他的作品和展览也在这本杂志中得到展示。

In 1970 the Belgian French-speaking television channel produced a documentary "Jóska Soós, peintre et shamaniste" in which several of his works were discussed. That year he also received a prize from the Belgian City of Liege (Federation des Industries Diverses). He also had an exhibition in the University library of Koln the same year. In 1970-1971 he spent, on invitation, some months in the artist's centre ‘Karolyi' in Vence near Nice in France. In 1971 he had some international exhibitions in Munster (Franz-Hitze-Haus), in Castrop-Rauxel (Kulturamt), and in Ludinghausen, Germany (Landesmuseum). In 1973, some of his works were exhibited in the Bonnefantenmuseum (Maastricht, Holland) and in former Yugoslavia (in the cultural centres of Brenjanin and Subotica) and additionally in Koln (Galerie Glaub).

1970年,比利时法语电视频道创作了一期纪录片“约斯卡·苏斯,画家和萨满”,探讨了他的几部作品。同年,他获得了“君主比利时城市”(多种工业联盟)颁发的奖项,同一年,他还在大学图书馆里举办了展览。从1970年到1971年,他应邀到法国尼斯市旺斯的艺术中心“Karolyi”参观数月。1971年,他在世界各地举办展览,包括明斯特的弗朗兹·西斯·豪斯研究院(Franz-Hitze-Haus),卡斯特罗文化厅(Kulturamt),德国吕丁豪森国家博物馆(Landesmuseum)。1973年,在荷兰马斯特里赫特的博尼范登博物馆,前南斯拉夫兹雷尼亚宁和苏博蒂察的文化中心,以及德国科隆相信画廊(Galerie Glaub)等地也展出了一些作品。

In 1975 another great change occurred in his life: on his wife's return from a trip to Mexico, she asked for a divorce. This was a great shock for him and he found an outlet for his anger and frustration by smashing tins and buckets together until they broke, yelling as hard as he could. His neighbours gave him the nickname "the fool that sings". Jóska tells us:

1975年,约斯卡的人生发生了一个重大转变。他的妻子从墨西哥回来后,向他提出离婚。这件事给他带来了沉重的打击。为了给自己的愤怒和挫折找了一个出口,他就使劲捏罐头盒和桶,直到捏碎为止,他用尽全身力气大声嘶喊。所以邻居们送他一个绰号——唱歌的疯子。约斯卡说:

"I felt driven into a corner and whatever I did, the problem did not solve. And then the sound came to me. I started yelling like a wild animal that has been captured. I remembered that my tutor did this too when something terrible happened to him. (...) I took a tin and started hitting it. At first, I only wanted to hit and break everything I could find, but then I thought to myself that all my things were too precious for that purpose, so I took a baking sheet and hit it until it broke too. At the same time, I yelled as hard as I could and it brought me a feeling of relief. Later I took a new baking sheet and started beating it, but it was already less powerful than the first time and I was able to play it longer before it broke. Afterwards, I took a plastic bucket and it was in fact my first drum. (...) I drummed on it for a couple of weeks" (Hartzema 1985).

“我感觉自己被逼到了一个角落里,无论我做什么,问题还是解决不了。后来,一个声音找到我。我开始像被猎到的野兽一样嚎叫。当有糟糕的事情发生在我师傅身上时,他也会像我这样。(……)我拿起罐子就会砸。起初我就是想砸坏我能看见的一切,但是后来,我考虑既然我的全部目的只是想砸东西,可如果把所有东西都砸了的话,代价就太大了。所以我拿起一个烘干的板子,只砸它一个,直到把它砸碎为止。砸的同时,我用尽全力喊叫,这样我就有了释放的感觉。杂碎一个之后,再拿一个新板子砸。后来我开始砸塑料桶,事实上那是我第一个鼓。(……)我一连敲了好几个星期”(Hartzema 1985)。

Jóska had discovered the healing power of the sound of his drum. He started to drum more and more until he felt the need to have his own shaman drum. In 1976 he initiated his first drum, on which he painted several symbolic figures in Chinese ink and gouache. Soon he started to lead seances. In 1981 he was in London for five months. There he met a group of Tibetan monks who taught him the various aspects of their way of life and who inquired of his experiences in the realms of the spiritual. He acquired from them many ceremonial objects, like singing bowls, rattles, conch shells and horns, to add to his drum in order to broaden his own ritual ceremonies (Hoppal 1994: 83). In 1988, he moved to Merksem, near Antwerpen, Belgium, where he still lives and works, using his shamanistic skills and objects of art. Here another important change occured: Jóska started to work on canvas again. However, he no longer worked with oil, but with acrylic paint, which, for practical reasons, proved to be much better. One can work much more quickly with acrylic paint (especially with the use of stencils); it dries much quicker and the artist is able to produce much more. He still used Chinese ink on paper, but found that aquarelle no longer worked well for him. In 1990 he married for the third time. In these past years he is still a very active artist and shaman, but clearly he was mainly influenced by events in his youth, both in the field of art and in the field of shamanism. Light, sound, totems and magic signs are very obviously the binding elements in his life and work (Ingels 1998-99:9-19).

约斯卡在鼓声中发现了缓解释放的力量。他越敲越多,直到他后来发现自己需要一把萨满鼓。1976年,他有了第一把萨满鼓。他用墨汁和水粉在鼓上画上了几个具有象征意义的符号。不久,他开始举行降神会。1981年,他在伦敦停留了五个月。期间,约斯卡遇到了一组西藏僧侣,他们向约斯卡介绍了自己的生活方式,僧侣们也询问了约斯卡在精神方面的经历。约斯卡向他们要了很多僧侣使用的庆祝工具,例如西藏颂钵、拨浪鼓、贝壳、号角,并把这些工具安装到他自己的鼓上,来扩大他自己举办的仪式。(Hoppal 1994: 83)。在1988年,他搬到离比利时安特卫普很近的莫克森继续生活和工作,继续使用他的萨满器具和艺术创作工具。在那儿又发生了一个改变:约斯卡重新开始在帆布上作画,只是不用油料,而是改用丙烯酸颜料,因为某种特别的原因,丙烯酸颜料作的画效果更好。不仅上色速度快(特别是在蜡纸上作画),干的也快。这样一来,艺术家就有足够的时间创造更多的作品了。所以约斯卡认为水彩画已经不适合他了,但依然继续使用墨汁。1990年,他开始了第三段婚姻。过去的几年里,他一直是一个非常活跃的艺术家和萨满。很明显,不论是艺术领域还是萨满领域,对他产生巨大影响的还是他年轻时的经历。光、声音、图腾,以及神奇的符号都深深地融入到了他的生活和他的作品当中。(Ingels 1998-99:9-19)。

An individual form of shamanism

As a shaman, Jóska Soós functions in an individual way. He has, through the years, developed a very special knowledge and way of working, but in spite of his own individuality many similarities can be found between his personal form of shamanism and its practice worldwide. The durability and strength of shamanism is to be found in its capacity to adapt itself and to exist for so long hand in hand with other cultures. Many elements of shamanism are bound within its own culture but many of its characteristics can also be found as common ground with other cultures and religions. Having said this, we see a clear illustration in the work of Jóska Soós. First and foremost is he a shaman, expressing in his art his own views of the world, but also incorporating and transforming mixed elements from other religions into his work. It can be said that Jóska Soós' shamanism is based on four supporting pillars that form the foundation of his own way of life.

萨满教的一个独特类型

作为萨满,约斯卡·苏斯有自己独特的行为方式。这些年,他学习了非常特殊的知识,培养了独特的做事风格。不过他的方式依然与世界上的其他萨满有共通之处。萨满教能够延续至今的原因,就在于它的力量来自其较强的适应能力,能够与其他文化并肩共存。萨满教有诸多只存在于萨满文化中的元素,但是也有一些特点是与其他文化和宗教相通的。介绍完这些之后,我们便对约斯卡·苏斯的作品有了更加清晰的了解。首先,他是一位萨满,这是理解他作品的基点,他在艺术作品里展示着自己看待世界的角度,同时也植入并转化了一些其他宗教的混合元素。可以说约斯卡·苏斯的萨满教是建立在以下四个支柱基础之上的,同时,这四个支柱也是他个人生活的基石:

1. There are six axioms that the shaman put together:

A) the main issue is sound, stemming from the fact that everything in the universe vibrates;

B) the secret of all knowledge;

C) the knowledge of all secrets is in us and available to us;

D) to make the human divine;

E) to make the mortal immortal;

F) and to spiritualize matter.

When combined, these six ingredients form a magic sentence that can be seen as an important conclusion within this individual form of shamanism. It can be beneficial advice both for the shaman as well as for the listener.

第一个支柱是萨满约斯卡组合起来的六个原则:

1.最主要的是声音,源自于世间万物都在发生震动

2.全部知识的秘密

3.所有秘密都能从我们自身找到解释,并且是可知的

4.使人神圣

5.化平凡成为不朽

6.赋予事物灵魂

    把这六个原则合并到一起,就能组成一句神奇的话,可以看作是萨满个人形式的重要总结。对于萨满和听众都是有意义的建议。

2. The second pillar consists of seven shamanistic blessings that can be used by the shaman at the levels of body, soul and spirit. These blessings are: peace, health, joy, light, serenity, contentment and love and these counsel the shaman on how to live his life. He can use these keywords as much for himself as for others.

第二个支柱包括七个萨满祈祷的内容:和平、健康、快乐、光、平静、满足和爱。祈祷的客体包括三个不同层次:身体、灵魂和精神。萨满约斯卡就是按照这些祈祷的内容而生活的。他不仅为自己祈祷,同样也为其他人祈祷。

3. Never may the shaman rebel or revolt, but he must keep on searching for an alternative peaceful solution: this is, in fact, the enormous non-aggressive adaptability of shamanism and the reason why it appears all over the world.

第三个支柱是萨满不得反叛和反抗,他只能并必须寻找和平的解决方法。事实上这就是萨满教所具有的巨大的,没有被侵蚀的适应力,这也是为何全世界都有萨满的原因。

4. The shaman has to know that he can be lonely as a spiritual person, but that he is never abandoned. The shaman is connected with everything and everything is connected to him (Ingels 1998-99:22).  

第四个支柱是萨满必须知道他只能是孤单的精神个体,但是,他从不会被抛弃。萨满和一切都有关联,一切也都和萨满有关联(Ingels 1998-99:22)。

The shaman's drum

The drum Jóska Soós owns since 1976 was initiated and painted by him. The magic signs he painted on it were specifically created for the user of the drum, the shaman. The drum has a profound meaning to him. In interviews, the shamanic artist always describes his present drum as the one he painted in 1976 and as the only one drum, but in fact it is only the wooden part of the drum that remains of the original drum. In 1980, his drum was seriously damaged when a stranger hit the drum on a rock, breaking the skin. This event forced him to stretch a new skin over the wooden frame of the drum and as a consequence two skins belong to his drum. The original skin and the replacement were both painted by him with diluted gouache and Chinese ink and they both received a very personal shamanistic initiation by their maker. In spite of the fact that the first skin had to be removed, the artist kept it in his private collection for a very long time. The replacement skin was painted and initiated by him on the 27th of October 1980. The painting on the new skin refers to the same symbolic meanings as the first one, but still some stylistic changes can be found when we compare the new skin with the original one.

约斯卡的萨满鼓

约斯卡·苏斯在1976年用的那只萨满鼓是他的第一把萨满鼓。蒙皮上的神奇符号是他专门为自己创作画上的。萨满鼓对约斯卡来说具有重要的意义。在采访中,这位萨满艺术家总是不忘描述他那只完美的鼓,就像在描述他的第一只鼓,好像他只有这一只鼓。而事实上,现在的这只鼓只保留了第一只鼓的木制骨架部分。1980年,一个陌生人把他的鼓砸在石头上,把蒙皮砸坏了。没办法,他只能在原骨架上蒙上新蒙皮了。他还用稀释的水粉和墨汁为新蒙皮画上了神奇符号。两个蒙皮都展现了约斯卡独特的萨满启蒙色彩。尽管第一张蒙皮坏了,约斯卡还是将它珍藏起来,保存了很久。1980年10月27日,他画了这张新蒙皮,也就是从那时起开始用这只新鼓。新、旧蒙皮上的符号所象征的意义是一样的。但是加以对比,就会发现它们的风格还是有所不同的。

The original drum skin (1976): The circular skin was divided by two horizontal lines, one on top of the other, into three horizontal zones, which are then divided by one vertical axis (that can be seen as the spine of the drum). Each area contains one "magic" sign painted in Chinese ink. These signs can easily be compared with the many "magic signs" the artist uses in his recent works. In the six different zones, one can find five different colours (blue on top, red at the bottom, yellow in the middle, white and black at the sides), painted in diluted gouache. At the top of the drum, one sign was placed on the spine and in the middle of two blue zones. This sign seems to be covered by a semicircle above. The central axis is flanked on both sides with wavy lines. In the left upper area one can see a sign of a half moon and in the lower right zone, the symbol of the sun can be found.

1976的蒙皮:鼓面呈圆形,被两条横向平行线分成三个区域。中间还有一条竖线,可以看作是鼓的脊柱。约斯卡用墨汁在每一个区域里都画了一个“有魔力的”符号。很容易就可以把这些符号和他最新的作品里画的“有魔力的符号”对比起来。鼓面被分为6个部分,画有5种不同颜色的符号,上面是蓝色,中间是黄色,下面是红色,两边是白色和黑色,都是用稀释的水彩画上的。有一个符号位于两个蓝色区域之间的脊柱上,好像有个半圆覆盖在它的上半部分。中间轴的两边是水文线。左上区域里是一个半月的符号,右下区域里是一个太阳符号。

The replacement skin (1980): This skin has the same form and measurements as the first one, since it was installed on the same wooden drum frame. Here, one can see the same subdivision in six different zones, all containing one "magic" sign. Although the division is the same, the signs differ slightly from the first drum skin. On top of the skin, only one blue zone can be seen, instead of two, and the upper sign is now represented fully in the blue area. Furthermore, the symbols of sun and moon are no longer represented as opposites, but they are now both presents in the upper zone of the drum. The signs in the other zones have changed completely and seem to be further elaborations of the original signs. The same colours were used on the new drum skin, but the three colours in the middle (blue, yellow and red) now touch each other at the horizontal lines. Each element of the drum has a significance for the shaman, not only for Jóska Soós, but also in other shamans' drums found in many shamanic cultures spread all over the world. The painting on the drum can be found on the inside as well as on the outside and it is usually a reference to the worldview of the shaman or the shamanic mythology in his culture (Hoppal 1994:32). In interviews, the shamanistic artist explains the symbolism he uses on the inside of his drum:

1980年的新蒙皮:由于两个鼓用了同一个鼓架,所以蒙皮的形状和大小都一样,新蒙皮也被分成6个区域,每一个区域里都有一个“神奇”的符号。这些符号和旧鼓的有略微不同。在鼓皮上面,只有一个蓝色区域,而不是两个。蓝色区域里的符号也是完整的。有一个较大的变化是,太阳和月亮不再代表相反的事物,而是一同画在上面的区域里。其他区域里的符号也完全被替换了。新鼓看起来比旧鼓更加精致。新、旧蒙皮的颜色相同,但新鼓中间区域的蓝色、黄色和红色水平相接。对于萨满来说,每种颜色都有特殊意义,这不单单体现在约斯卡·苏斯的鼓上,也体现在世界其他地域的萨满鼓上。鼓表面和里面的画均可以反应萨满鼓的拥有者的世界观,或者体现他所在文化里的萨满神话(Hoppal 1994:32)。在采访中,萨满艺术家约斯卡讲述了他在鼓里面所绘符号的含义:

"The signs at the bottom represent the primeval consciousness: bottom right represents the primal atom and bottom left represents the primal water creature. The two signs in the middle refer to the male and the female aspects of the drum. At the top the sun and the moon are depicted and above them the Pole Star rules over everything. The wavy lines, on either side of the vertical axle spine of the drum, show the flow of energy in it. The blue colour symbolizes the north and the air. The red at the bottom is the symbol of the east and the dawn. The black surface on the left side refers to the west and the night. The yellow colour in the middle is the symbol of the sun, light and intelligence" (Hartzema 1985).

“底部的符号代表原始意识:右下方的符号代表原子,左下方的符号代表原始水生物。中间的两个符号代表鼓的阴性和阳性。上面的两个符号分别是太阳和月亮,最上方是北极星,它主宰着一切。与中轴线平行的左右两条水纹线代表它的能量。蓝色代表北方和空气,下面的红色象征东方和黎明,左边的黑色代表西方和黑夜,中间的黄色代表太阳、光和智慧”(Hartzema 1985)。

This symbolism clearly refers to the personal view of the maker of the drum. Although the signs can not really be 'read' by an outsider, one can see their powerful radiation, in spite of their simple representation in Chinese ink.

这些象征意义无疑代表了制作者的个人观点,尽管他人无法解读某些符号的含义,但依然可以感到符号的力量,即使这些符号仅仅是用墨汁画出来的简单符号。

Other ritual objects

During the many visits that Jóska Soós made to the Tibetan monks in London, he learned more and more about the use and the effects of the singing bowls. The monks used these bowls in the course of their long prayers and meditations in order to experience their sounds and vibrations. In the seances of Jóska Soós the bowls represent the element sound, in accordance with the first axiom that was already mentioned above ("the main issue is sound"). Next to this symbolic function, they also have a practical one. They can be used, just like the drum, as a way of evoking a certain ecstatic state, but thanks to the strong vibrations these bowls produce when played, they can be put on or near the body to give a kind of "sound massage."

仪式上的其他法器

约斯卡·苏斯在伦敦见过几回西藏僧侣,学了许多西藏颂钵的用法,了解了颂钵的用途。僧侣们在坐禅和冥想时通过击打和摩擦颂钵来感受声音和震动。在约斯卡·苏斯的降神会上,颂钵代表声音元素,和前面提到的第一个支柱中的第一个原则(最主要的是声音)相对应。除了象征功能,颂钵还具有实用意义,可以当作萨满鼓来用,作为引入出神状态的工具。因为击打和摩擦颂钵可以引起较强的震动,所以把颂钵放在身上或身旁,人们便可以体验颂钵带来的“声音按摩”

Blowing the conch shell has an important meaning in the rituals of Jóska Soós. The sound of this shell is, according to him, a reproduction of the "human sound" or the "primal sound." It evokes an ecstatic state for the shaman and it can be considered as a shamanistic salute/greeting during the course of the séance. He never mentions to whom the salute is addressed, but when the artist depicts himself in his works blowing a conch shell, it can be considered as a salute/greeting and an acknowledgement by the artist to all characters and events from the séance reproduced in that work.

吹海螺壳在约斯卡·苏斯的仪式上也有重要意义。他说海螺壳的声音是“人类声音”和“原始声音”的再造。吹海螺壳能带领萨满进入狂热状态,还可以用在降神会的萨满领神/敬神仪式上。约斯卡从没提到他领的是哪一位神,但当他描述吹海螺壳的作品时,我们可以认为他在向降神会上的所有人和事致敬和致谢。

In the seances of Jóska Soós the element air is represented symbolically by bells and cymbals. The air is considered by the shaman as the "realm of spirits" and he, as shaman, is capable of arousing or frightening certain spirits. The shaker represents the element water in the seances. In the private collection of Jóska Soós, there are two different types of shakers: one represents the heavenly water (the rain) and the second represents the earthly water, flowing in rivers and streams.

降神会上,铃和钹代表空气元素,萨满认为空气是神灵的领域,作为萨满,他可以唤起神灵或者和神灵战斗。振动的法器代表水,在约斯卡·苏斯私人珍藏的物品里,有两种不同类型的振动法器,一个代表天上的水(雨水),一个代表地球上的水,即河流和溪水。

     The sound of the rattle represents the sound of the crackling fire during the seances. Fire has a huge importance, not only for Jóska Soós, but also in other shamanistically inspired cultures. Fire can frighten spirits, but it has a great importance to the shaman when used to heat his drum in order to re-animate its spirits in the beginning of the séance.

拨浪鼓的声音代表降神会上燃火的噼里啪啦声。火是极其重要的,不仅对于约斯卡·苏斯来说如此,对所有萨满影响过的文化都如此。火可以震慑神灵,但对于约斯卡这位萨满来说,火的重要性还在于在降神会开始时,他需要用火来热他的鼓,目的是给鼓再一次赋予生命力。

A ritual form of art

When shamanism is considered as the background of the works of Jóska Sods, it becomes possible to place these works in a broader context. Each work no longer exists as an individual entity, but each expresses a greater part of the personal story of its creator. The titles, as well as the works, refer to ecstatic experiences and images experienced by the artist during his seances. Through his work, the artist can transfer these images to the viewer, so that he too may have the possibility to come in contact with the strange world of the shaman. The artist himself constantly refers to the fact that he has truly 'lived' his works and images and it is in this context that they may be seen as ritual objects. For him, there is a much deeper meaning to be found in his works than merely their visual representation. In each work he is confronted with an ecstatic state of mind or an event linked to it. Often he puts a work on the wall to be able to experience it in a much deeper way. By doing this, he gives it a more profound meaning in his own mind and he becomes more capable of associating his experiences and his works. Several works remain for years on the walls of his house, whereas others return quickly to storage in his private collection, are sold or even given away. Those remaining longer in view are those which bring him more quickly in contact with a higher world. As a consequence, his house is filled with his works, and one can say that on entering his house, one is also entering the strange world of J6ska Sods (Ingels 1998-99:29-36).

艺术的仪式形式

在清楚了萨满教是约斯卡·苏斯创作的背景后,我们就能够把他的作品放在更大的背景下来理解。每一件作品都不是独立的个体,而是约斯卡个人故事的重要组成部分。无论是作品的名字,还是作品本身,都指向他的出神经历和降神会上所见到的形象。约斯卡把这些形象以绘画的形式表达出来,让其他人也能够见他之所见,了解萨满的奇特世界。艺术家约斯卡常常提及他真实地“活”在他的作品和意象之中,正因为如此,他的作品和意象也就成了萨满仪式的一部分。对约斯卡来说,他的作品具有深刻的内涵,它们绝不仅仅是一幅画那么简单。他的每一幅画,都代表了内心痴迷狂喜的状态,或者是类似的事物。他经常把作品挂在墙上,从而更深入地再体验一次,这样的做法使画作在他的头脑中被赋予更深层的意义,使他在建立作品与经历之间的联系时更加容易。有几幅画一直挂在他屋内的墙上,也有一些曾经挂在墙上的画被他收进了仓库,也有一些画被他卖了或扔了。一直挂在墙上的画是那些能让他与上层世界联系更快的作品。总之,在他的房间里到处都是他的画。我们也可以这样说,当你走进约斯卡·苏斯的房间时,你就走进了他的奇特世界(Ingels 1998-99:29-36)。

 

References

 

Hartzema, R. 1985. Jóska Soós. 1k genees niet, ik herstel de hannonie. Amsterdam: Karnak.

Hoppal, Mihaly 1994. Schamanen and Schamanismus. Augsburg: Pattloch.

Ingels, Tamara 1998-1999. Jóska Soós (°1921). Kunstenaar en sjamaan. (Unpublished M.A. thesis (tutor Prof. Dr. A. Reniers-Philippot). Brussels: Free University of Brussels.

参考文献

Hartzema, R. 1985. Jóska Soós. 1k genees niet, ik herstel de hannonie 约斯卡·苏斯,我不是在治疗,我只是在唤回和谐. Amsterdam: Karnak.

Hoppal, Mihaly 1994. Schamanen and Schamanismus(萨满与萨满教). Augsburg: Pattloch.

Ingels, Tamara 1998-1999. Jóska Soós (°1921). Kunstenaar en sjamaan(萨满艺术家). (Unpublished M.A. thesis (tutor Prof. Dr. A. Reniers-Philippot). Brussels: Free University of Brussels.

注释:

“约斯卡出生时包裹在羊膜囊里。在他出生的那一刻,家人都在田地里耕作,没人陪伴照顾他们母子。他的母亲一动也不敢动,所以他出生后一直通过脐带和他的母亲连在一起,在羊膜囊里足足等待了20分钟,直到一个路过的邻居发现了他们母子。”(选译自Dirk, 2001)

出神:萨满的职能所不可缺少的神灵附体的契机称作trance(出神),而这种契机通常根据神灵附体的形式分为两类:游离型和附着型。他认为,游离型主要见于西伯利亚东北部和中亚细亚的通古斯系萨满,他们认为萨满一旦进入出神状态,其灵魂就会脱离肉体,或者上天遨游,或者入地巡行,与那里的神灵交往,并将神灵的意旨传达于人间。(引自[日]樱井德太郎著、李东源译:《日本的萨满教》,吉林省民族研究所编:《萨满教文化研究》(第2辑),天津古籍出版社1990年版,第137页。)

③事情的起因是约斯卡和小伙伴们玩耍的时候,吵到了农夫和他生病的妻子,农夫警告过他们三次不要再吵了,可是他们不听,忍无可忍的农夫突然抓起一根很重的木棒朝这些吵闹的孩子们扔去,恰好砸到了约斯卡。(选译自Dirk, 2001)

④白光:根据Dirk Gillabel的文章,这里的“白光”还指透明意识。“The white light in the dream refers to crystal consciousness” 。(Dirk,2001)

⑤“微观和宏观宇宙的结构是一种数学结构,也是能量线交织的构造。每个结构都是动态的,不断互相交织着。他感受到这些数学结构既是空间的也是时间的,它们不断移动,像是由光制成的透明晶体一样”(Dirk Gillabel, 2001)。“小宇宙表达的应该是萨满本身的精神状态。大宇宙是那个没有人也没有地球外生物的独特的萨满宇宙,通过进入恍惚状态萨满的体内的小宇宙和萨满能感觉到的大宇宙能连贯起来”(赵芙蓉)。这里的“小宇宙”就是指“微观宇宙”,大宇宙指“宏观宇宙”(译者注)。“宏观和微观的意思出神的萨满可以穿行其中的不同世界,你可以把这与微小的细菌世界和宇宙、星辰和行星对比来理解”(Tamara Ingels)。

⑥“在萨满教中,公牛象征萨满本身。萨满梦里出现公牛争斗说明他已经是真正的萨满。也就是一种入巫的征兆。匈牙利的萨满的主要的特征是能变身为公牛。乌云压压暴风雨来临之际,必须和别的公牛争斗来确立自己的地位”(赵芙蓉译自岩崎圣子《活在匈牙利的民话,民间宗教里的“タールトシュ”》.2004) 。“牛是萨满的图腾,当两位萨满争取他们的特权时,他们会穿得像野马或是牛一样,展开争斗(Dirk2001)”。

⑦“维度就像不同的世界,精神世界,或者不同密度构成的各种世界。有几种这样的维度存在。维度是当肉体死亡时,你所去的地方。在这些维度内,有着各种存在。(译自Dirk Gillabel与译者的回信,回信原文:Dimensions are like different world, spiritual worlds, or worlds made from different densities. There are several of them. It is where you go when your physical body dies. These dimensions are also populated by different beings.”)

 

Biography of Joska Soos de Sovar, A Hungarian Shaman

by Dirk Gillabel

匈牙利萨满——萨瓦尔·约斯卡·苏斯简介

The following is based on a book, 'Joska Soos, Ik genees niet, ik herstel de harmonie' (Joska Soos, I do not heal, I restore harmony), a book published in Dutch in 1985 by editor Karnak in Amsterdam.

下文基于“'Joska Soos, Ik genees niet, ik herstel de harmonie”(《约斯卡·苏斯,我不是在治疗,我只是在唤回和谐》)一书,1985年在荷兰出版,由阿姆斯特丹Karnak编辑。

Joska Soos was born on December 20, 1921 in Apostag, Hungary. Between his fourth and his tenth year, he was brought up by his grandparents in Solt, 15 kilometers south of Apostag. When he was ten he went back to his parents in Budapest, but every year he went back to Solt on vacation.

约斯卡·苏斯,1921年12月20日出生于匈牙利奥波什陶格。他四岁到十岁期间,由居住在索尔特的祖父母照顾养育,那里位于奥波什陶格南15公里。十岁时,他回到居住在布达佩斯的父母身边,但每年假期都会回索尔特。

Joska Soos was born in a shaman clan, de Bacsa, and he was born with the caul. At the time of his birth nobody was home, they were all working in the field. His mother didn’t dare to do anything, and thus Joska was born and remained inside the caul, still connected to his mother with the umbilical cord for a full twenty minutes, when finally a neighbor came by. His unusual birth did not go unnoticed by the village shaman, who took him under his protection. The village shaman, Tamas Bacsi, was a horse merchant and a smith. He had taken four or five other children under his care for initiation purposes. Joska visited him every day, and often was taken along to visit people who needed healing. Tamas Basci healed people and animals by singing without words. He only used sounds. Tamas Bacsi not only used herbs, but especially worked with spiritual energies. He used to say "I do not heal, I restore harmony".

约斯卡·苏斯是古老的巴克萨可兰萨满氏族的后裔。约斯卡出生时包裹在羊膜囊里。在他出生的那一刻,家人都在田地里耕作,没人陪伴照顾他们母子。他的母亲一动也不敢动,所以他出生后一直通过脐带和他的母亲连在一起,在羊膜囊里足足等待了20分钟,直到一个路过的邻居发现了他们母子。他与众不同的出生经历,引起了村庄里萨满的注意,并收他为徒。村庄的萨满,托马斯·巴克斯,同时也是马商和铁匠。他同时还收了其他四五个孩子为徒弟,对他们进行萨满启蒙教育。约斯卡每天都去拜访他,为人治病时,托马斯也常常带着他。托马斯·巴克斯用唱歌来给人和动物治病,但歌词是含糊的音节,而不是完整的单词。他不仅会使用草药,还特别注重运用精神力量。他常说,“我不是在治疗,我只是在唤回和谐”。

Tamas Bacsi used to take his group of children to a tree and had them close their eyes and move rhythmically, while he started to sing sounds and clap his hands. By this they went into the prenatal state of consciousness, called by Joska the primal state of the water beings in the cosmic ocean. Sometimes they went even deeper and felt the harmony of cosmic vibrations. Tamas Bacsi didn’t explain anything, he just let the children experience. It was much later that Joska understood that that the images they saw are actually archetypal images, symbols from the unconscious.

托马斯·巴克斯常把他的徒弟们带到一棵树下,让他们闭上眼睛,然后让他们有节奏的运动,与此同时,还要拍手唱歌。这个方法帮助他们进入到胎儿般的意识状态,约斯卡称之为水生物以原始状态遨游在宇宙的海洋中的状态。有时,他们能进入更深的层次,甚至感觉到宇宙振动的和谐。托马斯·巴克斯不会去解释任何东西,他只是让孩子们自己去感受。很久以后,约斯卡才明白,他们所看到的画面实际上是原始意象,是无意识的符号。

After the First World War, Russia had captured many Hungarians, and people wanted to know if their husband, father or family members were still alive. Tamas Bacsi would take the inquiring woman to an old birch tree outside the village. Often Joska and the other kids could come, but they all had to be absolutely quiet. The woman was instructed to stand with her back to the tree facing Russia, and Tamas would listen to the wind rustling through the leaves. Then after half an hour or longer he told the woman if the man she was asking about was still alive, and when he would come home.

第一次世界大战后,俄罗斯掳走了很多匈牙利人。没被掳走的人们想知道她们的丈夫、父亲或家庭成员是否还活着,就来问托马斯。他会将前来询问的妇女带到村外的一棵老桦树下。平时,约斯卡和别的孩子通常会一起去洗脑玩耍,但这时,他们必须保持绝对的安静。妇女按照托马斯的指示面朝俄罗斯的方向,背对着树站住。然后,托马斯聆听风穿过树叶发出的沙沙的声音。这样过去半小时或更长时间,他就会告诉她,她的丈夫是否还活着,什么时候回家。

Tamas Bacsi also taught Joska Soos and the other children under his care to listen to the sounds of animals. There were no weather predictions there at that time, so in the evenings Tamas often went to a pool where he listened to the frogs. He could distinguish different tones in the sounds of the frogs, and based on this he was able to predict the local weather. He said: " Listen carefully to the frogs, as they know everything in three of the elements: on the earth, in the water and in the air, but they do not know anything of fire. Only salamanders know of fire." They learned to observe birds, especially crows, magpies and owls. Tamas was able to distinguish 64 different sounds of the crows. From the crows he could hear practical affairs, like people coming from over the mountains, and some weather predictions. They also had to learn how many times a stork clappers. A stork can clapper up to 6 or 8 times a second. Swallows can make 8 to 14 times a second. This is too fast to count, so they had to learn to feel the rhythm, which caused an expansion of their consciousness at the same time. They listened to other birds, and even mosquitoes for rhythm, intonation and musical tones for common predictions.

约斯卡·苏斯和其他孩子在托马斯·巴克斯的关心和教育下,还学会如何辨别动物发出的声音。那个时候还没有天气预报,所以托马斯常常会在晚上到池塘边听青蛙的叫声。他能区分青蛙叫声的不同音调,并以此预测当地的天气。他说:“仔细聆听青蛙的叫声,因为青蛙了解地下、水里和空气中的一切。但它们对火一无所知。只有蝾螈了解火。”他们学习如何观察鸟,特别是乌鸦、喜鹊和猫头鹰。托马斯能区分出64种乌鸦的叫声。从乌鸦的叫声中能得到许多有用的信息,比如断定山那边来人了,或者预测天气。他们还必须学习计算鹳拍翅的频率。鹳每秒能拍6到8次,燕子每秒能拍8到14次。通常都因为它们拍的太快而难以计算,所以他们必须学习感受拍翅的节奏,同时拓展意识。他们也需要仔细听其他鸟类甚至蚊子的声音,通过研究声音的节奏、声调和音调做出一般的预测。

Tamas Bacsi was a horse merchant, and on one of his trips to a horse market, he took Joska Soos with him. Joska was lying in the back of the horse wagon, with a blanket over him, while Tamas was singing with his usual guttural, rhythmic sounds. Joska slid off into a state between waking and sleeping, and went out of his body. In this state of consciousness he discovered the structure of the micro- and macro-cosmos, which is a mathematical structure and a weaving of energy lines. It is all alive, and one goes over into the other. He experienced that mathematical structures are being of both space and time; the structures always move and are like transparent crystals, as if made out of light. He saw a number of dimensions which were interconnected. He also experienced the white light. Later he understood that this experience was a journey of initiation.

托马斯·巴克斯是一个马商,有一次他带上约斯卡·苏斯去马市。约斯卡躺在马车厢后面,身上盖着毯子,托马斯用他一贯有节奏的喉音哼唱着。约斯卡在半睡半醒间进入了一种游离意识状态,他发现了微观和宏观宇宙的结构,那是一种数学结构,也是能量线交织的构造。每个结构都是动态的,不断互相交织着。他感受到这些数学结构既是空间的也是时间的,它们不断移动,像是由光制成的透明晶体一样。他看到了许多互相连通的维度,也感受到了白光。后来他才明白这次经历是一段启蒙的旅程。

A year before Joska Soos had his first experience with this level of consciousness when he was five and a half years old. He was playing outside with the village kids, and they were making a lot of noise. There was a farmer who had been warning them that they had to be quiet, because his wife was ill. They were quiet for a moment, but then they continued to make noise. The farmer had already warned them three times, when suddenly, he appeared with a big stick and threw it at the playing kids. The stick hit Joska and he fell down unconscious. He did not remember what happened next, but his mother told him that he was between life and death for weeks. The stick had hit him in such a way as to hinder his breathing and he was in danger of suffocation. The function of that part of the brain responsible for the breathing process was not damaged, but it was deregulated. He had a serious concussion. He remembered that in the period while he was unconscious he was living and traveling in white light. He had experienced the same white light once in an initiation, but this time he went into it. With his initiation he was watching it from a distance. But this time he went through it. He felt himself as being vapor, receiving impressions of powers, as if he was going through electromagnetic force fields. The walls were electromagnetic force fields. He enjoyed that very much. He was experiencing himself as timeless, spaceless and as consciousness. He had another consciousness, a consciousness that was more omnipresent.

在约斯卡五岁半的时候,也就是在第一次经历这一层次意识的前一年,他和村里的小伙伴一起在外面玩耍,非常吵闹。有位农夫警告他们安静些,因为他的妻子生病了。但他们只安静了一会儿,就又开始吵闹了。农夫警告了他们三次之后,他们依旧不停,这时农夫突然抓起一根木棒朝这些他们扔去。木棒砸中了约斯卡,他昏倒后不省人事。后来发生了什么他都不记得了,他的母亲告诉他,他昏迷了几周,生命垂危。这一棒打得他呼吸困难,险些窒息。大脑负责顺畅呼吸的功能没有受损,但是不受控制了,得了严重的脑震荡。他记得他昏迷的这段时间一直穿梭于白光之中。在萨满启蒙的时候,他遇到过同样的白光,但是这次他进入了白光。他感觉到自己蒸发着,不断接收能量,好像正在穿越电磁场。他很享受,能感受到自己的意识状态,不受任何时空的限制。他还有另外一种意识,像是一种更加无所不在的意识。

When he was twelve, Tamas took Joska Soos to a big pond and to get a horse skull that was lying on the bottom. The water level was low, but each time Joska made a step, the thick mud stirred up and made the water completely turbid. Joska had to go the middle of the pond and feel where the skull was. First he found an iron object, then a basket. Suddenly he felt that he had to go to the left, put his hand in the water and felt the skull, which was almost completely buried in the mud. It was a test to see if Joska could make contact with objects, to wake up dormant powers in himself.

约斯卡12岁的时候,托马斯带他到一个大池塘边,去找水底的一个马头盖骨。水位线很低,约斯卡每走一步,厚泥浆都随之搅起,水中一片浑浊。约斯卡只得走到池塘中间,来回摸,寻找头盖骨。他先是摸到了一个铁制的东西,后来,又摸到一个篮子。突然间,有种感觉告诉他,应该往左走,之后他就把手伸到水里去找,摸到了几乎完全埋在泥里的头盖骨。这是一个测验,看看约斯卡是否能在接触物体中唤醒他自身蕴含的潜在能量。

Another time Tamas Bacsi sent Joska, three other boys, and a girl to an old graveyard. They had to sleep there and remember their dreams the next morning. Joska new the graveyard well, as the kids used to play between the gravestones. There was a gravestone of an old woman that always caused fear in Joska, but there was also a pyramidal tombstone of a young girl, a countess, that he really liked. So he went to sleep at that tomb stone. Joska had strange dreams of two fighting bulls causing thunder and lightning, as it told in Hungarian folklore. When he woke up he was looking at a sky full of sparkling stars and a full moon. He went back to sleep and dreamt that he was enclosed in glass, crystal or ice, and he became quieter and quieter. The ice became more and more dense, and then suddenly he heard the sound of bells. The ice broke and he saw the white dimensions. He was afraid to go into the spiraling, unlimited white dimensions going over into each other and moving in to Joska. They moved into a direction of a still more brilliant light in which they disappeared, and his inner voice told him not to go any further.

还有一次,托马斯送约斯卡和其他三个男孩一个女孩去一个旧墓地,让他们睡在那里,第二天醒来要记得晚上做的梦。约斯卡很熟悉这块墓地,因为之前和小伙伴们经常在那儿玩耍。墓地里有一个老妇人的墓碑,可是约斯卡总是很害怕,但约斯卡却很喜欢一个年轻女伯爵的锥形墓碑,他就睡在了这块墓碑边上。约斯卡做了奇怪的梦,梦见两头牛搏斗引发雷鸣电闪,就如同匈牙利传说中讲的一样。当他从梦里醒来的时候,他看见了满天一闪一闪的星星和一轮明亮的满月。他又睡着了,梦见自己被关在玻璃、水晶或是冰里面,正变得越来越安静。冰渐渐变厚,然后他听见了钟声。冰打破了,他看到了白色的维度,螺旋状的白色维度,看不到尽头,不断盘旋、互相交织着向约斯卡移动,他害怕自己被卷进去。这一大团白色朝向一处更明亮的光移动,在那里消失了,约斯卡听见内心的声音告诉自己:不要再往远走。

In the morning Tamas Bacsi inquired for their dreams. He was very interested in Joska’s first dream. Apparently, the bull was the totem animal of the shamans, and when two shamans dispute their privileges, they would dress up as wild horses or as bulls, and then fight each other. At that time Joska did not know yet of this tradition. Tamas explained that Joska had seen his ancestors, the shamans, fight to be his master, and that because it was not clear who won, Joska had to choose one himself. Tamas also explained that one shaman came from the north and the other one from the south, symbolizing the elements of water and fire. About the other dream, Tamas said that those shamans had prevented him of going into the white hole, and that he should never go into this maelstrom. The white light in the dream refers to crystal consciousness.

第二天早上,托马斯来问他们昨晚梦见了什么。他对约斯卡的第一个梦很感兴趣。很显然,因为斗牛是萨满的图腾动物,当两方萨满争取他们的特权时,他们会穿的像野马或是斗牛一样,互相争斗。那时约斯卡还不知道这个传统。托马斯解释说,约卡斯看到了他的萨满祖先们为做他的师傅而斗争,但是因为并不清楚谁胜谁负,约斯卡不得不自己选出一个。托马斯还解释道,一位萨满来自北方,另一位来自南方,分别象征着水和火。对于对二个梦,托马斯说这些萨满阻止了他进入那个白色的洞,任何时候他都不应进到那个大漩涡里。而梦中的白光就是透明意识。

Joska Soos often speaks of "traveling without moving", a concept he learned from Tamas Bacsi. Tamas used to say that there is no difference in time or space when perceiving a finger, a tree or the stars. By looking at the stars, or by just keeping them in your mind, one can make contact with the ancestors in the sky. Tamas made Joska and the other kids often look at the Great Bear, or the Great Wagon, of which the mystical name is Gönz. It is an old Hungarian word of which the origin has been lost. It means "a mediator between god and man, who brought us civilization". Legend tells that the Gönz had been sent down from heaven to teach people on the technical, psychological and psychic level. Then the Gönz entered his fiery wagon and went back to the sky in the direction of the Great Bear. Joska thinks that this story might have some connection with what is nowadays called flying saucers.

约斯卡常提到的“无运动之旅”,就是从托马斯·巴克斯那里学到的一个概念。托马斯常说,当感知一根手指、一棵树或星星时,在时间和空间上,是没有区别的。当仰望着星星,或者只是在大脑中想象时,人们是能够感知到天空中的祖先的。托马斯常常让约斯卡和其他孩子观察大熊座,或者大马车,它有个神秘的名字“Gönz”。这是一个古老的匈牙利词,渊源已无法追溯。它的词义是“介于上帝与人类间的调解者,为我们带来文明”。传说Gönz由上天派遣而来,教会人们技术、心理和灵魂层面的知识。之后,Gönz进入他的烈火马车,朝着大熊座的方向回归天空。约斯卡认为这个故事可能与现今所谓的飞碟有所关联。

Tamas Bacsi died during the Second World War, and when Joska went back to Hungary in 1965, he was told that Tamas had made his totem pole (to be placed on the grave) years on beforehand, a custom that was still done by some farmers). He actually wanted to die by lightning strike, but passed over by weakness of the body.

托马斯·巴克斯在二战期间去世1965年,当约斯卡重返匈牙利的时候,他被告知,托马斯很多年前就预先做好了自己的图腾柱(死后要放在坟墓上,这是当地的一个习俗,有一些农民现在仍然这么做)。事实上,他想随闪电而逝,但却因病去世。

In 1946 Joska Soos moved to Belgium (remember that the Soviet Union occupied Hungary after the Second World War). Soon after he arrived the government declared that all immigrants from Eastern Europe could stay permanently in Belgium if they worked for five years in the coal mines. So Joska went to work in the coal mines. Joska continued to work on his inner development. When his shift was over and the miners went up, he stayed behind ad turned the light out. For a full hour (until the next shift came by) he was in total darkness. "That was marvelous because you can see absolutely nothing. The only thing you hear is the movements of the wooden structures, tak, tak, tak,… You smell the fragrance and you feel the vibrations that change consciousness. There I felt for the first time the three different kinds of vibrations, vibrations that come from above, vibrations that come from below, and a third kind that moved through the corridors. I was feeling the fine vibrations of the air, and the differences in warmth. That was quite an experience for me." Then he got his first experience, in the mines, of a light-sound being. It was an image of Christ in his emanation of "I am the resurrection, the life". It was such a surprise and so frightening that he did not dare to stay behind anymore, but went up with the other miners after his shift. After several weeks he got his courage up again and continued his experiences.

    1946年,约斯卡·苏斯搬到比利时(前苏联在二战之后占领了匈牙利)。他到那儿后不久,当地政府就宣布,所有来自东欧的移民,如果能在当地煤矿工作五年,就能获得比利时的永久居住权。所以,约斯卡就去煤矿工作了。同时,他也继续个人的内在发展。当他所在的班次工作结束后,矿工们都收工上去,只有他留在最后,关掉电灯,在伸手不见五指的黑暗中,呆上整整一个小时(直到下个班次的工人来上工)。“这很奇妙,因为你什么都看不到。唯一能听到的就是木质结构的移动,发出塔咳、塔咳、塔咳的声音,……你能闻到香气,感受到改变意识的振动,这种振动有来自上方的、下方的、还有贯穿所有通道的。我感受到空气的优美振动和温度的差异。那对我来说是一次很特别的体验。”之后,他经历了在矿井中的第一次光与声的体验,是在“我是复活与生命”那副画中的耶稣散发光辉的画面。它是如此的惊奇,也如此的恐怖。在那之后,他再也不敢单独留下,每次收工后,都和其他矿工一起上去。几个星期后,他重拾勇气,继续他的体验。

Joska Soos started to draw totem figures he remembered from his past, and then he painted the Christ figure he saw in the mines. After that he experienced sound as graphic forms, which he considers as being a kind of rune script, but in which the sound is embedded. He sees the totem figures as connected to the first and second chakra, the sound figures with the third, fourth and fifth chakras, and the light-sound beings with the sixth and seventh chakras. In 1950 he had his first exposition in Galerie du Parc in the city of Charleroi. In 1965 he left Charleroi for Brussels. His prime occupation there was painting. He discovered that when he stopped painting for ten days or two weeks, he started to get headaches, and no medicine could alleviate it.

    约斯卡·苏斯开始了记忆中图腾的创作,随后他将自己在煤矿中看到的耶稣形象画了出来。之后他还体验到了那平面画般的声音,他认为这是一种意识符号,各种声音被嵌入在意识符号中。他还认为图腾与第一、第二脉轮相连,声图与第三、第四、第五脉轮相连,而光-声物体与第六、第七脉轮相连。在1950年,他在沙勒罗伊的公园画廊成功举办了第一次展览。1965年他离开沙勒罗瓦,来到了布鲁塞尔。在这里他的主要职业就是作画。他发现自己如果十天或半个月不拿画笔,就觉得头痛,而且吃什么药都不管用。

In 1975 his wife left him which devastated him. Feeling powerless, he drummed on baking trays and buckets for weeks to get out his pain. Luckily he had understanding neighbors! One day he was drumming again, in the presence of a friend, when, in the mind, he found himself in a forest. A wild boar was running towards him, but a spiritual guide made the boar disappear. This became his first "shamanization".

1975年,他的妻子向他提出离婚,这让他一度感到绝望。为了给自己的愤怒和挫折找了一个出口,他使劲敲罐头盒和桶,直到敲碎为止,并且一连敲了好几个星期,还好他有一群可以理解他、包容他的邻居们!一天他在一位朋友面前开始疯狂地敲鼓,直到他发现自己置身于一片森林中。一头野猪朝他拼命地跑过来,但随后精神向导魔术般地把它变没了。这便是他的第一次“萨满经历”。

In the spring of 1981 Joska Soos went to London for two months, but in the end stayed for five. On day when he strolled around on Portobello Road, he saw some Tibetan ritual objects. A strange feeling of familiarity with those objects came over him. He felt that he in some past life not only had owned similar objects but had also used them. Desiring to know more he went to the Victoria and Albert Museum, where he met a man who gave him an address of a Tibetan antiquary. The antiquary was in contact with a group of lamas who sold him all kinds of personal objects they had taken with them when they fled Tibet. Joska was invited to their informal meetings. Aside from a few spiritually interested non-Tibetans, they all belonged to the red cap monks of the Karmapa Order. So, Joska attended their meetings on a regular basis and talked about many aspects of lamaism, and about his own experiences. They made a Tibetan horoscope for him, from which they concluded that he had been a Tibetan lama in a past incarnation, and before that a Chinese mandarin and Taoist. They organized a special ritual to bring him, and a couple of others, in contact with their genetic past.

1981年春,约斯卡•苏斯出发去伦敦,原计划打算在那儿待两个月,但最后因各种原因停留了五个月。一天他在波多贝罗集市闲逛时,无意间看见了几个西藏仪式用的物品。突然一阵亲切感油然而生,似乎是在哪里见到过。出于好奇,他走进了维多利亚和埃尔贝特博物馆,在那他遇到了一位自称西藏古文物研究者的男士。这位先生告诉自己,一群喇嘛将所有逃离西藏时携带的私人物品卖给了他。约斯卡被邀请参加他们的非正式聚会。除了少数几个纯粹因为兴趣加入的非西藏人士,其他人都属于葛玛噶举红帽系。因此约斯卡定期参加他们召开的会议,并在会上讨论喇嘛教有关的一些事情,还讲述了他自己的一些经历。僧侣们专门为他做了一个西藏占星,推算他的前世是一个西藏喇嘛,而在这之前是一个满清官吏与道教徒。他们还为约斯卡和其他人准备了一个特殊的仪式,让他们可以洞悉自己的前世。

Joska Soos finally moved to Antwerp, shamanizing and painting. He considers himself lucky to have had seven sources of knowledge to guide him in his inner development. The first source was that he was born with the caul, which enhances spiritual gifts in a person. The second source is that he was born in a shaman clan, which gave him the tools to connect with his genetic heritage. The third source was that he met a master, in the form of Tamas Bacsi, although anyone and anything else can be one’s master. The fourth source is the unlimited thirst for knowledge. The fifth source is that he is an artist. Being an artist is being creative, is experiencing vibration in an elevated state of mind. That is why when he works he always sings, in the shamanic way with guttural sounds. The sixth source is music, not composed music, but music he hears when working on a problem either of his own or of other people. The first time he heard that music was when he was twelve and half years old. During his vacation in Solt, he noticed a cat on the roof of a house. It did not dare to come down. Suddenly he heard a sound as if someone hit the strings of a cello to start a piece of Beethoven. Instinctively he turned around to see if someone had turned on a radio, but the only living beings around were the flies. Nevertheless the music continued, powerful and encompassing , like a storm coming over. Luckily he remembered the word of his master, Tamas Bacsi, who had said that when you hear the music you immediately have to turn it off, then turn it on again, and off again, until you completely master it. Otherwise you go nuts. It happened to Robert Schumann, who once said that "the air is full of music". The seventh source was the apparition of the light-sound beings.

后来,约斯卡·苏斯搬到了安特卫普,继续萨满器具和艺术的创作。他自认很幸运,因为他有幸拥有七大攫取知识的源泉,不断地为他的人生道路提供方向和动力。第一大源泉便是他出生时保存有完整的绒毛膜,这是上天给予他的精神馈赠。第二大源泉是他出生于一个萨满家族,这使得他具有开发潜力的先天优势。第三大源泉是他有幸遇到了托马斯·巴克斯大师,虽然任何人与事都可以成为每个人的老师,但结交这位大师对他而言帮助很大。第四大源泉是他对知识的无尽的渴求之心。第五大源泉是他是一名艺术家。艺术家的工作就是创作,就是在振奋的精神状态下捕捉灵感。这就是为什么他喜欢在工作时用萨满教的方式低声唱歌的原因。第六大源泉是音乐,不是创作音乐,而是他在解决自己或他人的问题时听的音乐。第一次听到这种音乐的时候,他年仅12岁半。有一次他在索尔特过假期,他注意到一只爬到房顶上的猫。这只猫爬得太高,不敢往下跳。突然他听到了一个声音,好像是有人用大提琴演奏起了贝多芬的乐曲。他出于本能地转过身去,看是否有人打开了收音机,但周围唯一会动的东西就是苍蝇。尽管如此,音乐没有丝毫停下来的意思,急速有力地朝他扑过来,如同暴风雨一般。幸运的是,他想起来了托马斯·巴克斯大师曾经对他说过的话,他说当你听到音乐时,你必须马上关掉它,然后打开,再然后关上……直到你能够完全掌控它,否则你就会疯掉。罗伯特•舒曼就遇到过这种状况,他还说过一句话就是:“空气中到处是音乐”。第七大源泉是以光-声形式存在的物体。

Almost every shaman has his drum. It is a key instrument with shamanizations. Joska’s drum is an initiated drum. It was initiated in a special ritual in which the potentials of the shaman come up in the form of images. At the same time spiritual guides can show up. When Joska initiated his drum in 1976 five spiritual guides showed up immediately. A couple of weeks later there were two more. In 1985 he had twenty seven guides.

几乎每位萨满都拥有专属于自己的鼓,因为鼓是萨满的标志性乐器。约斯卡的鼓是一只原创的鼓,是在一场特殊的仪式上创造的。在仪式上萨满候选人用图片的形式呈现鼓,而精神向导会在此时出现。当约斯卡在1976年创造了他的鼓后,五名精神向导便马上出现了。几周之后,又有两名精神向导加入进来。截止1985年为止,他的向导总共有七位。

As with every shamanic drum, Joska also painted his drum. On his drum we can see three areas: the subterranean, the earth surface, and what is above the earth. On the lowest level, the subterranean, under the earth is the fire (to the right) represented by a primal atom. Under the water is a water animal, a polyp (left). At the level of the earth’s surface is the representation of a man and a woman. Above them is heaven with the sun above man (right) and the moon above woman (left). Heaven also represents super-consciousness, the subterranean the sub-consciousness and the middle region is our normal consciousness. The highest regions are marked by the polar star (top middle of the drum). The polar star also refers to the crown chakra. The design on the drum shows two parts of the two kinds of swastikas. The vertical axis is the spine of man, his development in life and harmony. It is the tree of life, or the cosmic tree. The polar star at the top of the tree is the door to the divine.

所有萨满鼓都会被画上各种图案,约斯卡的鼓也不例外。他的萨满鼓被分成三个部分:地下、水平线与地上。地下部分(靠右)印有火的标志,代表最初的原子。水下是一只水生动物珊瑚虫(左)。与水平线平行的是一个男人和女人像。水平线以上的是一片天空,男人上方是太阳(右),女人上方则是月亮(左)。天空代表超意识,地表以下代表潜意识,中间地带代表我们的常态意识。处于最高的部位标有北极星(鼓的中间靠顶端位置)。北极星代表天灵之源。鼓上印有两种印度吉祥标志的两部分。垂直中轴线代表人的脊椎、生命的延伸以及和谐,它是生命之树,或是宇宙之树。位于树顶部的北极星则是通往天堂的入口。


附录3术语表

acrylic paint

丙烯酸颜料

adaptability

适应力

amniotic sac

羊膜囊

aquarelle

水彩

Ash Wednesday

圣灰星期三

atom

原子

Bacsa

巴克萨

bell

canva

帆布

caul

羊膜

chakra

脉轮

ink

chorion

绒毛膜

clan

部落、氏族

comatose

昏睡的

conch shell

海螺壳

concussion

脑震荡

consciousness

意识

cymbal

devil

魔鬼

dimension

维度

disciple

信徒

divine

神圣的

dormant power

潜在能力

element

元素

extraterrestrial

天外来客,地球外物质

gouache

水粉

Great Bear

大熊座

harmony

和谐

herb

草药

hypnotic

催眠的

Karmapa

噶玛巴

la Resurrection

复活

lama

喇嘛

long prayer

坐禅

magic signs

神奇符号

magpies

喜鹊

mandarin

满清官吏

meditation

冥想

monk

僧侣

multidimensionality

多维性

paranormal

超常的

polyp

珊瑚虫

Protestant

新教徒

radiation

辐射

rattle

拨浪鼓

rebel

反叛

revolt

反抗

ritual

仪式

salamanders

蝾螈、火蜥蜴

salute

致敬

seances

降神会

shaman

萨满

shamanistic initiation

萨满启蒙

Sigmund Freud

西蒙·弗洛伊德

singing bowl

颂钵

spiritualize

人格化

stork

Taoist

道士、道教徒

the Pole Star

北极星

Tibet

西藏

Tibetan horoscope

西藏占星图

totem pole

图腾柱

trance

出神

vibrating dust

晃动尘土

vibration

颤抖

wavy line

水纹线

whirlpool

漩涡、涡流

white light

白光


附录4                                                      攻读学位期间本人出版或公开发表的译著、论文

以及从事的翻译实践活动

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  • 英汉词汇文化内涵及其翻译
  • 论大学英语教学改革之建构主义理论指导
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  • 对易卜生戏剧创作转向的阐释
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  • 反思型教师—我国外语教师发展的有效途
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  • 教育实践指导双方身份认同批判性分析
  • 中英商务文本翻译异化和归化的抉择理据
  • 从艺术结构看《呼啸山庄》
  • 从儒家术语“仁”的翻译论意义的播撒
  • 论隐喻与明喻的异同及其在教学中的启示
  • 话语标记语的语用信息在英汉学习型词典
  • 论森欧外的历史小说
  • 翻译认知论 ——翻译行为本质管窥
  • 中美语文教材设计思路的比较
  • 美国写作训练的特点及思考
  • UP语义伸延的认知视角
  • 成功的关键-The Key to S
  • 杨利伟-Yang Liwei
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  • 对儿童来说互联网是危险的?
  • 跨文化交际教学策略与法语教学
  • 试论专业英语课程项目化改革的可行性-
  • 论沈宝基的翻译理论与实践
  • 翻译认知论——翻译行为本质管窥
  • 母爱的虚像 ——读高桥多佳子的《相似
  • 浅析英语广告语言的特点
  • 中国の株価動向分析
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  • 日语的敬语表现与日本人的敬语意识
  • 浅析日语中的省略现象
  • 浅谈日语中片假名的应用
  • 浅谈日语敬语的运用法
  • 浅谈日语会话能力的提高
  • ^论日语中的年轻人用语
  • 敬语使用中的禁忌
  • 关于日语中的简略化表达
  • 关于日语的委婉表达
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  • Of Love(论爱情)
  • SONY Computer/Notb
  • 从加拿大汉语教学现状看海外汉语教学
  • MLA格式简要规范
  • 浅析翻译类学生理解下的招聘广告
  • 日本大学排名
  • 虎头虎脑
  • 杰克逊涉嫌猥亵男童案首次庭审
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  • June 19,1997: Vict
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  • Father's Day(异趣父亲节
  • 百佳电影台词排行前25名
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  • June 8, 1968: Robe
  • 60 players mark bi
  • June 6, 1984: Indi
  • 日本の専門家が漁業資源を警告するのは
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  • 世界のバレーボールの日本の32年の始
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  • 广州紧急“清剿”果子狸
  • 美国“勇气”号登陆火星
  • 第30届冰灯节哈尔滨开幕
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  • BIRD flu fears hav
  • 中国チベット文化週間はマドリードで開
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