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隐藏文章
Heroes in August Wilson’s Plays
添加时间: 2011-4-26 10:34:23 来源: 作者: 点击数:5341

Abstract[A1] 

From the 20th century, with the women’s self-awakening, the great female writers began to[A2]  go up on the literature stage in the second generation of southern renaissance, like Carson McCullers. Her literary talent is by no means inferior to the male writers. The fiction of Carson McCullers has variously been described as gothic, grotesque and bizarre. For her lively description of morbidity south common people, she was thought as the one of the representative southern America writers in southern gothic genre. The Ballad of Sad Cafe is the typical work to reveal the theme: the power of love still cannot solve the problem of solitary among the communicational obstruction. This paper will analyze the theme from the perspective of love and solitary, especially the chain gang in the end of the novel which is the code to reveal the truth of love and solitary. Therefore, we can deeply feel the longing of Carson McCullers’s love and agape.

Key Words[A3] 

    love; solitary; South Gothic Genre; morbid personality; Carson McCullers


摘要[A4] 

20世纪起,伴随着南方女性的自我意识觉醒,“南方文艺复兴”的第二代作家中出现了像卡森[A5] •麦卡勒斯这样的优秀女作家,其创作才华和众多的男性同行相比各有千秋,并毫不逊色。美国南方女作家卡森•麦卡勒斯的作品多被冠以哥特式、怪诞和古怪的标签,生动刻画着生理残缺和心理变态的南方平民,这一写作风格也使其成为了“南方哥特式小说”的代表作家。麦卡勒斯的作品大都表现着同一主题:人的孤独与难以沟通,纵然是爱的魔力也无法突破这巨大的隔阂。其中中篇小说《伤心咖啡馆之歌》是怪诞艺术的典范。本论文就将从卡森•麦卡勒斯的爱与孤独主题剖析《伤心咖啡馆》这部小说,尤其小说的结尾苦役队那十二个囚犯的歌声,这是麦卡勒斯小说的密码,也是她的全部魅力。通过对《伤心咖啡馆》的解读,可以感受到隐藏在作者深切孤独背后的博爱与对爱的呼唤。

关键词[A6] 

    ;孤独;南方哥特式风格;病态人格;卡森﹒麦卡勒斯


Contents[A7] 

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………….... i

摘要……………………………………………………………………………………………...ii

Introduction.................................................................................................................................. 1

1. Love with Gender Roles and Ballad Implication................................................................... 2

1.1A General Content of The Ballad of the Sad Cafe............................................................. 2

1.2 An Analysis of the Personalities of the Main Characters.................................................. 3

2. Loneliness and Solitary............................................................................................................. 4

2.1 Distinction and Causes...................................................................................................... 4

2.2 The Love Triangle in Loneliness........................................................................................ 4

3. South Gothic Genre in Literature........................................................................................... 5

3.1 The Background of South Gothic Genre.......................................................................... 6

3.2 The Feature of the South Gothic Genre and McCullers’s works...................................... 6

3.3 South Gothic Genre in The Ballad of the Sad Cafe........................................................... 7

4. The Problem in Physiology and Psychology........................................................................... 7

4.1 The Problem of Morbid Personality.................................................................................. 7

4.2 The Biography of Carson McCullers................................................................................. 8

4.3 The Influence on Carson McCullers’s Novel ................................................................... 8

5. Historical Events Affecting the State....................................................................................... 9

5.1 Historical Background....................................................................................................... 9

5.2 The significance of Chain Gang’s Song.......................................................................... 10

Conclusion................................................................................................................................... 12

References................................................................................................................................... 14

Acknowledgements..................................................................................................................... 15


Heroes in August Wilson’s Plays[A8] 

Introduction[A9] 

August Wilson (1945-2005) is one of the leading American playwrights of the late twentieth century. He came to theatrical prominence with his Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, which premiered at the Yale Repertory Theatre in 1984 and[A10]  later in the same year went to Broadway where it enjoyed 275 performances and won the New York Drama Critics’ Circle Award. Wilson enjoyed further successes with his subsequent works. In addition to two Pulitzers, for Fences (1987) and The Piano Lesson (1990), Wilson also won other top drama awards, including a Tony for Fences and an Olivier, England’s Tony equivalent, for Jitney, five New Play Awards/Citations from the American Theatre Critics Association and seven New York Drama Critics Circle Awards. He is one of only seven American playwrights to win two Pulitzer Prizes, and one of only three African-American playwrights to receive the prize. Many critics and scholars believe Wilson is the fourth greatest playwright after Eugene O’Neill, Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller [1]. When he died in 2005, Broadway’s marquee lights dimmed for one minute.                     

       Wilson highly values the African-American culture. In his keynote address “The Ground on Which I Stand” Wilson articulated his aesthetic and cultural identification with his mother and her ancestors, though his biological father is white [2].

Many scholars have discussed and provided some incisive insights about “this culture” presented in Wilson’s drama. The review of literature mainly deals with the studies that actually inform Wilson’s dramatic construction of African-American heroes.

    In his book Black Manhood in James Baldwin, Emest J. Gaines and August Wilson, Keith Clark recognizes that “voice and community are the primary vehicles for black male authors’ reconceptualization of subjectivity” [3]. He starts with the black protest discourse represented by Frederick Douglass, Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison. In this protest tradition, “Not only is the subject consigned to a veritable no-man’s-land with respect to white society, he maintains few if any connections with black men. The word ‘intimacy’ might aptly connote what is so painstakingly absent in black men’s relationships with each other. Being relegated to the position of the other by an intractable white environment, these protagonists subsequently impose this distinction upon themselves and their counterparts” [4]. In such a capriciously belligerent environment, the deoentered black male subject when seeking approbation from white dominant society finds his voice mediated, muted, and often silenced.

Though connected to black protest tradition, the spokesmen of the "NBA" (New Black Aesthetic)James Baldwin, Ernest J. Gaines, and August Wilson reimagine and rewrite black male subjectivity. Clark believes that Baldwin, Gaines and Wilson are earnestly concerned with the interiority of black men’s lives. They foreground and privilege the black subject’s overall relationship to a black speech community a nurturing, embryonic environment that give birth to the black male voice.

Harry J. Elam, Jr. in his book The Past as Present in the Drama of August                                                                  Wilson makes some provocative claims about music, madmen and children, women, men and the Yoruban god Ogun in Wilson’s canon. Of particular relevance to this study is his meticulous analysis of racial madness and black masculinity. Elam defines racial madness as “a trope that became operative in clinical practice, literary creation, and cultural theory in the modem period as artists, critics and practitioners identified social and cultural roots for black psychological impairment” [5]. Recognizing double-consciousness, which “can cause social and psychological tensions for black subjects” [6]is a form of racial madness, Elam argues that this particular type of schizophrenia is not rooted in the race itself, “but that the conditions of modem African American life, the racism, alienation, and discrimination that black people face, induce a racial neurosis”.

Elam examines black masculinity in Wilson’s plays through detailed textual analysis of father-son relationship, prison politics and black-white dialectic within existent socio-economic system. To recover black masculinity through the problematic patriarch, Elam observes that the sons in Wilson’s cycle must learn to love and forgive, learn to remember “the `father’s story in ways that allow one to hold on but also to let go”.   

    The methodology used for this study is Afrocentric. This means the research will be guided by the cosmological, epistemological, axiological and aesthetic criteria of African-American culture. However, as heroism is a universal phenomenon as well and certain qualities may be shared by heroes of all cultures or races, theories on hero that are not formulated particularly from African-American perspective will also be considered for the analysis. They will serve either to enunciate the heroes’ general features or to provide a comparative/contrasting parameter to underscore unique African-American heroic values.

1. Translation[A11]  Studies and Contrastive Text Linguistics

Translation is such a process that a form of expression in one language is transformed into its corresponding equivalence in another one. Translation practice is of a long history that could date back to the beginning of communication between different tribes in ancient time. As an academic subject, however, the study of translation has not come into being until the second half of the 20th century. In the year of 1972, James S. Holmes, in his article “The Name and Nature of Translation Studies”, officially brought forward the name of the scholarly study of translation, which was later known as Translation Studies.

1[A12] .1 Natures of Text Linguistics

Traditionally, text was regarded as a language unit above sentence. According to Basil Hatim, text is “a set of mutually relevant communicative functions that hang together to a particular context and thus achieve an overall rhetorical purpose. The minimal unit of text ……

1[A13] .1.1 Text Linguistics

Translation is such a process that a form of expression in one language is transformed into its corresponding equivalence in another one. Translation practice is of a long history that could date back to the beginning of communication between different tribes in ancient time. As an academic subject, however, the study of translation has not come into being until the second half of the 20th century……


Conclusion[A14] 

A translation, coherent in both explicitness and implicitness, requires accurate and thorough analysis on the original as well as on the translation. Basil Hatim’s contrastive text linguistic theories have paved the way for translators to realize such analyzing process in terms of three dimensions of context. In his theories, tradition, al meta-functions of language and the concepts of genre, field and mode are combined together, which helps introduce the concept of intertexuality guaranteeing the text coherence.

The attempt of analyzing United Nations Millennium Declaration in this paper aims to apply Basil Hatim’s contrastive text linguistic theories in translation practice, especially in the area of political and diplomatic translation.

In concluding, translators should pay attention to avoid any loss of the ideational meaning when he or she conducts translation of a text according to its text type. Different from of literary translation, for instance, the intentionality of legal text is to thoroughly convey the ideational meaning of the original, even if it sometimes reads not so idiomatical. In the translation of United Nations Millennium Declaration, however, consideration has also been given to the accurate transfer of the interpersonal meaning, pragmatic equivalence by the translator who tackles this problem with appropriate shifts in the textual meaning of text.

Thus, from the whole analyzing process, Basil Hatim’s contrastive text linguistic analyzing approach is proved full of practicability as a theoretical framework. It helps the translator realize explicit and implicit coherence in translation based on fully understanding
References[A15] 

[1]      Molette[A16] , Carlton W. and Barbara J. Molette. Black Theatre: Premise and Presentation [M]. Bristol: Wyndham Hall Press, 1992: 39-41, 43, 47, 53.

[2]      Adell, Sandra. Speaking of Ma Rainey [C]. Alan Nadel. May All Your Fences Have Gates: Essays on the Drama of August Wilson. Iowa City, IA: University of Iowa Press, 1994: 51-66.

[3]      张美芳[A17] , 黄国文. 当代美国黑人剧作家奥古斯特·威尔逊作品中的历史再现[J]. 外国文学. 2003, 25 (3): 3, 5.

[4]      Newmark, Peter. A Textbook of Translation [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 1999: 117.

[5]      Newmark, Peter. About Translation [M]. Clevdon: Multilingual Matters, 2008: 45-47

[6]      Berlin, Ira, Marc Favreau, and Seven F. Miller. Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk about Their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Freedom [M]. New York: The New Press, 1998: 15-16.


Acknowledgements[A18] 

       At end of this thesis, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, for his sincere support and precious suggestions throughout the process of preparing, drafting and revising this thesis. Without his insightful guidance, the accomplishment of this thesis would have been impossible.

       I am also grateful to all the teachers who have taught me during my four-year study in the English department, School of Western Studies, Heilongjiang University, and who have given me so invaluable enlightenments that I can benefit through all my life.

       At last, sincere thanks should also go to the Interpretation Section of the United Nations, especially Ms. Christian Landrein, for her great patience and always-in-time response to my questions. In addition, all the writers of those books and articles to which I have referred in the thesis should have my highest respect because without their previous researches full of diligence and intelligence, this thesis would have been based on no ground.


 [A1]Times new roman, 小二,加黑

 [A2]小四

 [A3]同上abstract

 [A4]黑体,小二

 [A5]小四

 [A6]同“摘要”

 [A7]Tiames new roman, 小二

 [A8]Times new roman, 小二,加黑

 [A9]小四,加黑

 [A10]正文,小四,字体同上

 [A11]小四,加黑

 [A12]二级标题,小四加黑

 [A13]三级标题,小四加黑

 [A14]小二,加黑

 [A15]小二,加黑

 [A16]五号,注意文献作者、文章、书名等书写顺序

 [A17]宋体,五号

 [A18]小二,加黑

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  • 基于学习风格的英语学习多媒体课件包
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  • 笔译价格
  • 携帯TV電話の活用
  • 英語学習におけるノートテイキング方略
  • 強化学習と決定木によるエージェント
  • エージェントの行動様式の学習法
  • 学習エージェントとは
  • 強化学習と決定木学習による汎用エージ
  • 講演概要の書き方
  • 对学生英语上下义语言知识与写作技能的
  • 英汉词汇文化内涵及其翻译
  • 论大学英语教学改革之建构主义理论指导
  • 国内影片片名翻译研究综观及现状
  • 平成13年度経済情報学科特殊研究
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  • デジタルペンとRFIDタグを活用した
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  • 創刊の辞―医療社会学の通常科学化をめ
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  • 揭示政治语篇蕴涵的意识形态
  • 试论专业英语课程项目化改革的可行性
  • 多媒体环境下的英语教学交际化
  • 翻译认知论
  • 读高桥多佳子的《相似形》
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  • 论沈宝基的翻译理论与实践
  • 论语域与文学作品中人物会话的翻译
  • 浅析翻译活动中的文化失衡
  • 谈《傲慢与偏见》的语言艺术
  • 论语言结构差异对翻译实效性的影响
  • 英语传递小句的认知诠释
  • 英语阅读输入的四大误区
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  • 津田思想的形成
  • 反思台灣與中國的津田左右吉研究
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  • 健康食品の有効性
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  • 韩汉量词句法语义功能对比
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  • 对高校学生英语口语流利性和正确性的思
  • 二语习得中的文化错误分析及对策探讨
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  • 趣谈英语中的比喻
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  • 西部地区中学生英语阅读习惯调查
  • 论隐喻的逆向性
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  • 认知体验与翻译
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  • 从互文性视角解读《红楼梦》两译本宗教
  • 从目的论看中英动物文化词喻体意象的翻
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  • 高校体艺类学生外语学习兴趣与动机的研
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  • 法语对英语的影响
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  • 试论读者变量对英语阅读的影响
  • 从文化的角度看英语词汇中的性别歧视现
  • 合作原则在外贸函电翻译中的运用
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  • 福柯的话语权及规范化理论解读《最蓝的
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  • 奈达与格特翻译理论比较研究
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  • Economic globaliza
  • 用概念整合理论分析翻译中不同思维模式
  • 英语新闻语篇汉译过程中衔接手段的转换
  • 对易卜生戏剧创作转向的阐释
  • 动词GO语义延伸的认知研究
  • 反思型教师—我国外语教师发展的有效途
  • 输入与输出在词汇学习中的动态统一关系
  • 教育实践指导双方身份认同批判性分析
  • 中英商务文本翻译异化和归化的抉择理据
  • 从艺术结构看《呼啸山庄》
  • 从儒家术语“仁”的翻译论意义的播撒
  • 论隐喻与明喻的异同及其在教学中的启示
  • 话语标记语的语用信息在英汉学习型词典
  • 论森欧外的历史小说
  • 翻译认知论 ——翻译行为本质管窥
  • 中美语文教材设计思路的比较
  • 美国写作训练的特点及思考
  • UP语义伸延的认知视角
  • 成功的关键-The Key to S
  • 杨利伟-Yang Liwei
  • 武汉一个美丽的城市
  • 对儿童来说互联网是危险的?
  • 跨文化交际教学策略与法语教学
  • 试论专业英语课程项目化改革的可行性-
  • 论沈宝基的翻译理论与实践
  • 翻译认知论——翻译行为本质管窥
  • 母爱的虚像 ——读高桥多佳子的《相似
  • 浅析英语广告语言的特点
  • 中国の株価動向分析
  • 日语拒否的特点及表达
  • 日语的敬语表现与日本人的敬语意识
  • 浅析日语中的省略现象
  • 浅谈日语中片假名的应用
  • 浅谈日语敬语的运用法
  • 浅谈日语会话能力的提高
  • ^论日语中的年轻人用语
  • 敬语使用中的禁忌
  • 关于日语中的简略化表达
  • 关于日语的委婉表达
  • The Wonderful Stru
  • Of Love(论爱情)
  • SONY Computer/Notb
  • 从加拿大汉语教学现状看海外汉语教学
  • MLA格式简要规范
  • 浅析翻译类学生理解下的招聘广告
  • 日本大学排名
  • 虎头虎脑
  • 杰克逊涉嫌猥亵男童案首次庭审
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  • June 19,1997: Vict
  • 今天你睡了“美容觉”吗?
  • [双语]荷兰橙色统治看台 荷兰球员统
  • Father's Day(异趣父亲节
  • 百佳电影台词排行前25名
  • June 9,1983: Thatc
  • June 8, 1968: Robe
  • 60 players mark bi
  • June 6, 1984: Indi
  • 日本の専門家が漁業資源を警告するのは
  • オーストリア巴馬は模範的な公民に日本
  • 日本のメディアは朝鮮があるいは核実験
  • 世界のバレーボールの日本の32年の始
  • 日本の国債は滑り降りて、取引員と短い
  • 广州紧急“清剿”果子狸
  • 美国“勇气”号登陆火星
  • 第30届冰灯节哈尔滨开幕
  • 美国士兵成为时代周刊2003年度人物
  • BIRD flu fears hav
  • 中国チベット文化週間はマドリードで開
  • 中国チベット文化週間はマドリードで開
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  • シティバンク:日本の国債は中国の中央
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  • 古いものと新しい中国センター姚明の失
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  • 中国の電子は再度元手を割って中国の有