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Treatment of high strength wastewater from fruit juice industry using integrated anaerobic/aerobic system
添加时间: 2011-2-22 10:14:33 来源: 作者: 点击数:6234

Treatment of high strength wastewater from fruit juice industry using integrated anaerobic/aerobic system

a b s t r a c t

This work aimed to study the treatment of wastewater generated from fruit juice industry (2430 m3/batch). Three treatment schemes have been investigated. The first treatment scheme was a batch activated sludge (AS) system and was operated at different aeration time up to 48 h. The second scheme was two-stage upflow anaerobic sponge reactors (UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s). Two-stage UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s were operated at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT 水力停留时间) of 13 h corresponding to an organic loading rate (OLR 有机负荷率) of 8.7 kg COD/m3 d. While, the third treatment scheme consisted of a two-stage UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器 followed by an AS system which was operated at three different HRT 水力停留时间s namely 10, 12, and 14 h. Long term experiments indicated the superiority of the third treatment scheme which operated at a total HRT 水力停留时间 of 23 h (UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s: 13 h and AS: 10 h) in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS) and oil & grease removal. The integrated system achieved an overall removal efficiency of 97.5% for COD, 99.2% for BOD5, 94.5% for TSS and 98.9% for oil & grease. The treated wastewater produced from the UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器–AS system complied with the standards set by the Egyptian law regulating the reuse of treated wastewater in agricultural purposes

Article history:

Received 23 September 2009

Received in revised form 9 November 2009

Accepted 10 November 2009

Available online 5 December 2009

Keywords:

Fruit juice industry

UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器

Activated sludge process

Agricultural reuse

1. Introduction

Food-processing industries in Egypt are under increasing pressure

to reduce the impact of their wastewater streams on the environment.

The production of large volumes of untreated wastewater can thus

become a very serious financial burden. Most of the wastewater

generated from food industries is highly contaminated with organic

matter, dissolved solids, suspended solids and oil & grease [1].

Wastewater must be properly treated to the degree necessary to

comply with the regulatory standards for discharge into surface water

or reuse for agricultural application [2,3].

Anaerobic digestion technology has been applied for treatment of a

wide variety of industrial wastewaters with high organic matter

content, including dairy wastewater [4], cheese whey wastewater [5],

distillery spent wash water [6], starch wastewater [7], and slaughterhousewastewater

[8]. The up-flowanaerobic sludge bed (UASB 升流式厌氧污泥床) reactor

technology is considered a breakthrough in the development and

application of anaerobic high-rate technology for industrialwastewater

especially for wastewaters coming from food-processing industries [9].

Problems with the UASB 升流式厌氧污泥床 reactor treating wastewater result from

washout of biomass which deteriorates the effluent quality [10]. In the

anaerobic biofilm reactors, the support medium acts as a physical protective

factor against washout, thus being potentially attractive for

biomass retention in the reactor. El-Gohary et al. [11] compared

between classical UASB 升流式厌氧污泥床 and anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR 厌氧复合反应器) for the

treatment of pre-treated catalytically oxidized olive mill wastewater

(OMW) at an HRT 水力停留时间 of 24 h and an OLR 有机负荷率 of 2 kg COD/m3 d. After reaching

the steady state, the AHR 厌氧复合反应器 removed 64% of the CODwhich was higher by

14% than that obtained in the UASB 升流式厌氧污泥床 reactor.

In this study, the polyurethane foam was used as packing media and

randomly distributed in anaerobic reactors 厌氧反应器 to: (i) improve the solids

microbial contact, and even the contact between the solids and the extracellular

enzymes, (ii) overcome washout of suspended solids, (iii) enhance

hydrolysis of the particulate organicmatter, (iv) increase the sludge

residence time (SRT 污泥停留时间), and reduces the applied hydraulic retention time.

However, the effluent of the anaerobic reactors 厌氧反应器 generally does not

comply with standards for discharge into receiving water bodies.

Therefore, post-treatment is required. Malaspina et al. [12] investigated

the integrated system consisting of down-flowup-flow hybrid reactor

(DUHR) followed by sequencing batch reactor (SBR) as post-treatment

system for treatment of dairy wastewater. The whole system achieved

more than 90% removal of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus. In another

study, Wahaab and El-Awady [13] investigated the feasibility of using

rotating biological contactors (RBC 旋转生物接触器) as post-treatment system for

treatment of pre-anaerobically meat processing wastewater. RBC 旋转生物接触器 was

operated at an OLR 有机负荷率 of 0.288 kg BOD5/m2 d. RBC 旋转生物接触器 system achieved a

substantial reduction of COD, BOD5, TSS and oil & grease resulting effluent

quality with residual values of 132, 40, 44 and 10 mg/L, respectively.

Thiswork presents a feasibility study for the treatment ofwastewater

generated from fruit juice industry. The factory produces natural

concentrated syrups of different fruits (Apple, Orange, Cherry etc.).

Wastewater generated from the factory varied from 24 to 30 m3/batch.

Wastewater is characterized by high BOD5 and COD values representing

their high organic content. These effluents may cause serious problems,

in terms of organic load on the local sewerage system. Therefore, appropriate

treatment is required prior to reuse treated effluent in irrigation

purposes [14]. So, the aim of this research work was to investigate a

simple, low-cost integrated system for treatment of high strength fruit

juice wastewater to produce treated wastewater complies with the

national regulatory standards for reuse in agricultural application.

2. Materials and methods

In this study, three treatment schemes have been designed and

manufactured. The first scheme was an activated sludge (AS) system.

The second scheme was a two-stage up-flow anaerobic sponge reactor

(UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器). While, the third one was a two-stage UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器 followed by an AS

system. The three schemes were located out-door and were operated

at a temperature of 25 °C. A schematic block diagram of the experimental

layout is shown in Fig. 1.

2.1. The first treatment scheme

The activated sludge (AS) system used in this experiment was a

batch scale complete mixed reactor model. The bioreactor system was

made from glass with a working volume of 2 L. The bioreactor was

initially inoculated with 1 L biomass. The used biomass (3.6 g VSS/L and

SVI of 62mL/g TSS)was taken from a near-by full scale activated sludge

plant treating domestic wastewater (Zeneen, Cairo). AS system was

aerated through an air diffuser, under these conditions the dissolved

oxygen concentration 浓度 in the reactor was kept between 2 and 3 mg/L. To

attain the acclimated state, the AS system was fed twice a day with a

mixture of domestic and industrial wastewater for 1 week. This was

followed by 2 weeks of operation using the raw industrial wastewater.

After reaching the acclimated state, the AS system was fed with 1 L of

raw wastewater and then 100 mL of the mixed liquor was taken from

the AS system at a different aeration time. The mixed liquor was allowed

to settle for 1 h, and then the supernatant was withdrawn and analyzed

to determine the optimum contact time from COD removal standpoint.

This experiment was repeated six times.

2.2. The second treatment scheme

This experiment was carried out using a two-identical-stage UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器.

UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s were manufactured from PVC and were connected in series.

Each UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器 (5 L) consisted of a cylindrical column with a conical

shaped bottom and gas solid separator (GSS). The UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器 had a height

of 70 cm, and an internal diameter of 10 cm (Fig. 2).

Each reactor was seeded with sludge obtained from the pilot plant

anaerobic hybrid reactor treating municipal wastewater [15]. The

sludge had a concentration 浓度 of 22 g/L for total solids at 105 °C, 13.6 g/L

for volatile solids at 550 °C and 44.5 mL/gTS for SVI. The total amount

of sludge added to the reactor was approximately 2 L which

represented 40% of the total reactor volume.

The floating polyurethane foam was used as packing media and was

randomly distributed in the anaerobic reactors 厌氧反应器. The dimensions of the

used sponge (cylindrical shape) amounted to 27mmin height×22mm

in diameter. The polyurethane material used in this study was

supported by a polypropylene plastic material with fins. The sponge

characteristics parameters were surface area (256m2/m3), density

(30 kg/m3), void ratio (0.9), and pore size (0.63mm). The total amount

of sponge added to the reactor was approximately 1.5 L.

The UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s were operated at a total HRT 水力停留时间 of 13 h, throughout the

study. OLR 有机负荷率's varied from5.49 to 15.5 kg COD/m3 d with an average value

of 8.7 kg COD/m3 d. During start-up, the reactor was operated at 25 °C

with a total HRT 水力停留时间 of 24 h to allow sludge adaptation to fruit juice

wastewater. Afterwards, the HRT 水力停留时间 was gradually shortened with the

corresponding increase in organic load to reach the desired HRT 水力停留时间 (13 h).

For calculating the SRT 污泥停留时间 of the UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s, it is assumed that the effluent

VSS 可挥发性悬浮物had the same SRT 污泥停留时间 as the excess sludge. The SRT 污泥停留时间 of the UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s were

calculated according to Eq. (1).

SRT 污泥停留时间 =V XQw Xw + Q Xe

where V is the reactor volume (L), X is the average sludge concentration 浓度

in the reactor (g VSS/L), Qw is the excess sludge (L/d), Xw is the concentration 浓度

of the excess sludge (g VSS/L), Q is the wastewater flow rate

(L/d), and Xe is VSS 可挥发性悬浮物concentration 浓度 in the effluent (g VSS/L).

2.3. The third treatment scheme

The UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s effluent (pre-treated effluent)was subjected directly into

an activated sludge system as post-treatment step. To attain the acclimated

state, the AS system was fed twice a day with a mixture of

domestic and industrial wastewater for 1 week. After reaching the acclimated

state, the AS system was fed continuously with the anaerobic effluent

andwas operated at three different HRT 水力停留时间s namely, 10, 12 and 14 h.

2.4. Fruit juice wastewater 果汁饮料废水

The end of pipe effluent used in this study was collected from a fruit

juice factory. The wastewater that was generated from the factory

varied from 24 to 30m3/batch.Wastewater was mainly produced from

production lines, equipments and floor cleaning operations. Fruit juice wastewater 果汁饮料废水 contains a relatively high biodegradable organic matter 可生物降解有机物

(BOD5/COD ratio=0.61). The pH of the raw wastewater was slightly

acidic. So, to provide buffering capacity, 1.52 mol of bicarbonate was

added to ensure that the wastewater pH did not drop below7.4 [16,17].

2.5. Sample collection and analysis

The performance of the treatment schemes was monitored by implementing

an extensive sampling and analysis program. Samples from

influent and effluent of each treatment step were collected for analyses.

The analyses covered: pH-value, chemical oxygen demand (COD),

biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total suspended solids (TSS), total

kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), total phosphorous (Total-P), sulfate, hydrogen

sulfide and oil& grease. The raw sample was used for COD and BOD5, and

a 0.45 μm membrane filtered the samples for soluble COD and BOD5,

respectively. The particulate COD and BOD5 were calculated by the

difference between COD and CODsoluble, and BOD5 and BOD5 soluble,

respectively.

Moreover, sludge characteristics including: sludge volume, total

solids, volatile solids and sludge volume index were also carried out.

All analyses were carried out according to APHA [18].

2.6. Kinetics modeling

The kinetics modeling used in this study was based on basic Monod

model. Two limiting cases of the Mono, d model were considered.

2.6.1. Zero order model

In the cases of constant biomass concentration 浓度s with low biomass

change, i.e., ΔXX0, and high substrate concentration 浓度 (SKs),

Monod equation can be reduced to a zero order reaction [19]:

dS

dt

= kX: ð2Þ

Therefore, the kinetics constants kX can be measured by zero

order linear regression using substrate S versus time plot, with the

slope being equal to the product乘积 of k and X. Thus k is the slope of

the zero order coefficient versus biomass concentration 浓度 (X).

2.6.2. First order model

On the other hand, based on the same constant biomass concentration 浓度

condition, with KsS, Monod equation can be simplified to a first

order reaction:

dS

dt

=

kXS

Ks

ð3Þ

Therefore, the first order biodegradation kinetics coefficient kX/Ks

can be determined from ln(S/S0) versus time plot. The slope of the first

order biodegradation coefficient versus biomass is thus k/Ks.

2.7. Engineering studies

Based on the results of treat ability study, engineering design

related to final recommendations was carried out. Preparation of

preliminary cost estimation for the suggested scheme was conducted.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Wastewater characteristics

The characteristics of the investigated wastewater are presented in

(Table 1). Available data indicates great fluctuations in the strength of

the wastewater during the study period; this could be due to

variations in the production processes. COD varied from 2280 to

10,913 mg/L with an average value of 5157 mg/L. Corresponding

BOD5 varied from 1650 to 6900 mg/L with an average concentration 浓度

of 3134 mg/L. The average TSS and oil & grease concentration 浓度s were

323 mg/L and 74 mg/L, respectively.

3.2. Treatment schemes

3.2.1. The first treatment scheme

The temporal variation of COD in the batch scale operated with

Fruit juice wastewater 果汁饮料废水 at initial substrate to microorganism ratio of

1.11 mg COD/mg VSS 可挥发性悬浮物is depicted in Fig. 3. As apparent from Fig. 3, COD

removal was accomplished within 30 h, and no further reduction in

COD was observed after that, with the steady state COD stabilizing at

3050 mg/L. Furthermore, the results of this test clearly show that

COD removal efficiencies ranged from 10 to 99.5% with about 1% of the

initial COD was non-biodegradable even after 30 h of treatment. This

is to be excepted since any organic loading above the maximum

microbial uptake will be untreated.

As elaborated upon earlier, both limiting cases of the Monod model

i.e., zero order and first order kinetics were investigated. A summary

of the zero order and first order coefficients for the various batches is

listed in Table 2 together with the various correlation coefficients.

Fig. 4 illustrates graphically the fit of the data from the batch AS

system to the first order kinetic model. It is apparent from the data

that the first order kinetic model fit the data well; with an R2 value of

0.921 from the first order kinetics. The reasonably good fit of the data

to the first order model approximations may be explained by a

varying biomass concentration 浓度 or prevalence of wide values in

substrate concentration 浓度s within the vicinity of this Ks value in any given batch.

The results presents in Fig. 5 show that by increasing HRT 水力停留时间 from 28

to 30 h, the COD, BOD5 and TSS concentration 浓度s in the final effluent

significantly dropped from 175 to 30, 38 to 8 and 82 to 36 mg/L,

respectively. However, further removal of COD and BOD5 did not

occur by increasing the HRT 水力停留时间 to 48 h. On the other hand, TSS

concentration 浓度s in the final effluent significantly dropped from 36 to

5 mg/L by increasing HRT 水力停留时间 from 30 to 48 h to produce effluent with

quality complying with the national allowable limits which regulate

the reuse of treated wastewater in agricultural purposes

(COD=80 mg/L, BOD5=60 mg/L and TSS=50 mg/L). This excellent

performance towards the removal of organic matter can be attributed

to the high active biomass present in the system. Moreover, the

results also clearly demonstrate that the activated sludge system can

produce an effluent quality containing low concentration 浓度 of TSS. The

suspended matter could be adsorbed on and/or enmeshed into the

biomass and then hydrolyzed by extra-cellular enzymes [12].

Sludge analyses showed that, the sludge volume index ranged

from 50 to 83 mL/gTS which gives an indication for the good settle

ability of sludge. Microscopic examination of the sludge indicated the

presence of many colonies of protozoa, especially stalked ciliates such

as Vorticella, Opercularia and Rotatoria (not shown).

3.2.2. The second treatment scheme

The two-stage UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s were operated at a total constant HRT 水力停留时间 of

13 h, throughout the study. OLR 有机负荷率's varied from 5.49 to 15.5 kg COD/

m3d with an average value of 8.7 kg COD/m3d due to a change in the

influent composition. Despite variations in OLR 有机负荷率, the reactors provided

effluent quality of around 2033 mg/L for COD, and 910 mg/L for BOD5

corresponding to the percentage removal values of 61 and 70%,

respectively (Fig. 6a). Also the results clearly show that, a substantial

reduction of TSS was achieved resulting in an average percentage

removal of 69%. This indicates the high efficiency of the UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s for the

removal of suspended solids at a relatively high suspended solids

loading rate of 0.8 kg TSS/m3 d. This relatively good performance

could be attributed to the long sludge residence time (SRT 污泥停留时间=76 d)

which would effectively increase the efficiency of hydrolysis and

subsequent digestion of organic matter.

In this investigation, COD removal was lower than that previously reported

for UASB 升流式厌氧污泥床 reactor treating cheese production wastewater at a lower

OLR 有机负荷率 (1.51.9 kg COD/m3d) and substantially longer HRT 水力停留时间 (3040 h) [20]

and also lower than those obtained from the UASB 升流式厌氧污泥床 reactor treating dairy

wastewater at an OLR 有机负荷率 ranging from 2.4 to 13.5 kg COD/m3d and shorter

HRT 水力停留时间 of 3 h. The COD removal ranged from 61 to 95.6% [4].

The adsorption phenomena play an important role for COD and TSS

removalwhich occurs in anaerobic treatment of complex fat containing

effluents, it is acceptable to assume that in an anaerobic reactor, the

sludge bed acts as a filter retaining the organic matter which leads to

the growth of sludge [21]. Once the storage capacity is exhausted,

unintentional washout of the sludge together with the effluent takes

place. This indicates that the sludge bed of the anaerobic reactor had

lost its adsorption or retention capacity originating a breakthrough

phenomenon similar to that common in an adsorption column. In this

study, the washout of biomass did not occur; this was due to the use of

floating polyurethane foam at the top portion of the reactor.

Residual total phosphorous, TKN and oil &grease in the treated effluent

were 9.1, 28.4 and 21.6 mg/L corresponding to average percentage

removal of 11, 51 and 70%, respectively (Fig. 6b). Apparently, the removal

of phosphorous and nitrogenwas due to precipitation,while the removal

of oil and grease was due to entrapment/adsorption to the sludge bed of

the UASB 升流式厌氧污泥床 reactor [22].

The characteristics of the retained and excess sludge from the twostage

UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s are presented in Table 3. The VS/TS ratio of wasted sludge

was 0.66 which indicates that the wasted sludge was almost

stabilized. The mean value of the net sludge yield coefficient was

found to be 0.2 g VSS/g COD removed per day, corresponding to 20% of

the total influent COD. This is a very important feature of the UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器,

since it is significantly lower than that normally found in conventional

aerobic systems. Sludge production in the UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s may be attributed to

flocculation of non-biodegradable particulate matter, forming the

inert sludge mass fraction and the biological sludge mass that is

generated as a result of anaerobic conversion in the UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器 [23,24].

3.2.3. The third treatment scheme

The effluent quality of the anaerobic step does notmeet the standards

set regulating the reuse of treated wastewater in agricultural purposes.

Therefore, the activated sludge system has been investigated as a posttreatment

for the UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s effluent. The AS system was operated at three

different HRT 水力停留时间s namely, 10, 12 and 14 h.

The obtained results show that by increasing the HRT 水力停留时间 from 10 to

14 h the removal efficiency of COD, BOD5 and TSS in the AS system

increased. The residual values in the AS effluent at HRT 水力停留时间 of 14, 12 and

10 h were 21, 50 and 65 mg/L for COD; 10, 10 and 16 mg/L for BOD5

and 3, 5 and 15 mg/L for TSS, respectively (Fig. 7a). The results

presented in Fig. 7b show no significant improvement in the removal

efficiency of Total-P and TKN by increasing the HRT 水力停留时间.

These results are comparable to the results obtained by Malaspina

et al. [12] who used a sequencing batch reactor for treatment of the

anaerobic down-flowup-flow hybrid reactor effluent and activated

sludge system treating the anaerobic reactor effluent [25]. Over 90% of

COD was removed at a sludge age of 20 days.

Consequently, residual values of the pollution parameters in the

final effluent of the anaerobicaerobic system complied with the

national allowable limit which regulates the reuse of wastewater for

irrigation purposes.

3.3. Cost estimation of the proposed wastewater treatment plant

In most developing countries, industrial wastewater treatment

and disposal is a matter of concern that needs to be addressed. The

prospects for economic and social development, poverty and

priorities for industrial investments are the main obstacles in making

decisions about wastewater facilities. Since financing, constructing,

operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants are quite

costly, most developing countries [26] including Egypt, avoid these

projects.

Based on the above results, the preliminary cost estimation for a

Fruit juice wastewater 果汁饮料废水 treatment plant was conducted. Fig. 8 shows

the schematic diagram of the proposed system, which consists of:

two-stage UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器s as pre-treatment step followed by an AS step. The

fixed capital cost was 1,554,000 LE. The values shown are based on the

available market prices of 2009 for similar works. The work shall

comprise supply of all materials, construction of civil work, and supply

and erection of all mechanical and electrical equipments. While the

annual operation and maintenance (O&M) cost including electrical

energy cost, labor cost, insurance cost... etc. was 100,000 LE.

4. Conclusion and recommendation

In this study, three treatment schemes have been manufactured

and studied for the treatment of Fruit juice wastewater 果汁饮料废水. The first

scheme consists of an AS system. The second scheme is a two-stage

UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器. While, the third one is a two-stage UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器 as a pre-treatment

followed by an AS system. Based on the available results, the following

conclusions were drawn:

(1) The two-stage UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器 is an efficient technique for the pretreatment

of Fruit juice wastewater 果汁饮料废水 at an HRT 水力停留时间 of 13 h. The

reactor achieved percentage removal values of 61% for COD,

70% for BOD5, 69% for TSS, 51% for TKN, 11% for Total-P and 70%

for oil & grease.

(2) The wasted sludge from the UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器 reactor was almost stabilized

(VS/TS ratio=0.66). The sludge yield coefficient was around

0.2 g VSS/g COD totally removed per day, corresponding to 20%

of the total influent COD. Moreover, the use of polyurethane

foam as a packing media sheets overcome the washout out of

biomass which occur in a classical UASB 升流式厌氧污泥床 reactor.

(3) The combination of the two-stage UASR 升流式厌氧海绵反应器 and the AS system

represents a very promising option for the treatment of juice

industry wastewater. The combined system achieved an

average removal efficiency of 97.5% for COD, 99.2% for BOD5,

94.5% for TSS and 98.9% for oil & grease. The effluent quality of

the integrated anaerobic/aerobic system complies with the

national allowable standards required for reuse in agricultural

purposes.

(4) Accordingly, the proposed system can thus be recommended as

a techno-economically feasible Fruit juice wastewater 果汁饮料废水 treatment

system.

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